German Democratic Republic


May 25, 2022

The Deutsche Demokratische Republik (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik [DDR), or East Germany (German: Ostdeutschland) is a socialist German state founded in October 1949. It existed until the reunification of Germany on October 3, 1990.

Geography of the GDR

Geographical location

The GDR lay in Central Europe, between 54 ° 41 'and 50 ° 10' north latitude and 9 ° 54 'and 15 ° 2' east longitude. It is bordered on the north by the Baltic Sea, on the east by the Polish People's Republic on the Oder and Neisse rivers (460 km border), on the south by Czechoslovakia (454 km), and on the west by Germany (1,378 km). Within the country was West Berlin, a city with a separate legal status defined by a quadripartite agreement between the USSR, the United States, France and the United Kingdom, signed in September 1971.


The relief of the country was dominated by two main forms: plain with numerous elevations and lakes of glacial origin, occupying 2/3 of the country; medium-high mountains: the highest peaks are Fichtelberg (1214 m) in the Ore Mountains and Brocken in Harz (1142 m).


About 30% of the territory was covered with forests, mainly pine and Christmas trees. Among the deciduous plantations were beech and oak.


The most common representatives of the GDR fauna were deer, fallow deer, roe deer, mouflon, wild boar, hare, wild duck, fox, marten, weasel.


According to the agreements reached at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the Allies established their joint military occupation administration of Germany - the Allied Control Council of four states (USA, UK, USSR, France), which was to be the military government before regaining sovereignty. In East Germany, the Soviet occupation zone (SBZ - Sowjetische Besatzungszone) consisted of five lands: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. After the Soviet government relinquished the Union Supervisory Board in 1948, the Soviet administration promoted the development of a separate socialist government in its area. However, seven years after the Potsdam Conference of the USSR through the Note of Stalin (March 10, 1952) proposed the reunification of Germany, which three