Oats (Avena) - a genus of 25 species of cereals of the family Poaceae. Oat species are native to Eurasia, northern and northeastern Africa.
The genus of oats combines diploid (2n-14), tetraploid (2n-28) and hexaploid forms (2n-42), annual and perennial. The annual species of oats, of which there are 14, include three cultivated species: sowing (A. sativa L.) (2n-42), Byzantine, or Mediterranean (A. byzantina C. Koch) (2n-42) and sandy (A. strigosa Schreb.) (2n-14), as well as common in our country as contaminants wild weed-field species, in particular common oats (A. fatua L.) (2n-42) and southern oats (A. ludoviciana Dur. ) (2n-42).
Wild forms of oats, in contrast to cultivated ones, have at the base of all grains (A. fatua) or only the lower grain (A. ludoviciana) the so-called horseshoe with closed edges, formed by the thickening of the lower part of the flower scales. In the presence of horseshoes oat grains are easily separated from spikelets and when ripe are intensively sprinkled alone (in ordinary oats) or two or three grains together (in southern oats). Cultural species do not have a horseshoe and the base of the grain has the appearance of a flat or slightly beveled plane. When ripe, cultivated oats are more resistant to scattering. Of the cultivated types of oats in Ukraine, only sown oats are common. Byzantine oats are somewhat common in Central Asia. Sandy oats are better known in Ukraine as a contaminant of sowing oats; has no production value and is rare.
The cultivation of oats as a grain crop began about 2500 BC. The exact location of the cultivation is unknown, but mostly archaeologists believe that it happened in Eastern Europe. During the Bronze Age, when horses were first used as a traction force, oats began to be widely cultivated in northern and eastern Europe, but at the same time its crops were virtually absent in the Mediterranean region. As before, about 95% of oats are grown for animal feed or as a technical crop, and only 5% for human consumption.
Oat grain has too little gluten, so it has never been used to make bread.
Types of cultivated plants:
Avena sativa - Sowing oats. Cereals that �