Ottoman Empire

Article

January 22, 2022

The Ottoman Empire (Ottoman: دولت عالیه عثمانیه, Devlet-i Âliyye-i Osmâniyye) is an Islamic monarchical state of the Turkish Ottoman dynasty. It existed in 1299–1922. Founded by Sultan Ottoman I on the peninsula of Asia Minor. In early modern times it was a superpower in Europe and the Mediterranean. Destroyed the Byzantine Empire, capturing its capital Constantinople, renamed Istanbul (1453). During its heyday in the XVI - XVII centuries occupied Anatolia, the Middle East, North Africa, the Balkan Peninsula and adjacent to the north of Europe. It had numerous vassals - Wallachia, Moldova, Transylvania, the Republic of Ragusa, the Crimean Khanate, Mecca, the Imereti Kingdom and others. It was headed by sultans, who also bore the titles of king, caliph and emperor of Rome. It was governed by a centralized government (port) and a multinational local bureaucracy. The capital was in the cities of Segut (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453) and Istanbul (1453-1922). Sunni Islam was the dominant religion, and representatives of other religions were taxed. The main language of the ruling class was Ottoman Turkish. Among the multinational population, the most numerous ethnic groups were Turks, Greeks, Armenians and Arabs. In the XVI-XVII centuries it had one of the best armies in the world, the framework of which was artillery and janissary infantry. She waged permanent wars with Persia, the Holy Roman Empire, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Venetian Republic, the Papal States, the Order of Malta, Poland, and the Russian Empire. At the height of its power, during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1555), it stretched from Vienna to the Persian Gulf, from the Crimea to Morocco. It entered an era of decline after its defeat in the Great Turkish War (1683-1699). It weakened greatly as a result of bureaucratic corruption, janissary riots, defeats in the Russo-Ottoman wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, and the nationalist policies of the Young Turks. It disintegrated after the First World War of 1914-1918. In 1922 the monarchy was abolished, and in 1924 the caliphate. The disintegration of the state was consolidated by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, which resulted in the Turkish Republic, the successor to the empire. Former Ottoman possessions became independent states or possessions of Great Britain and France

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