Paraguay (Guara Paraguái; Spanish: Paraguay MFA: Paraguay) west with Bolivia. Area - 406752 km²; the capital of Asuncion. Terrain: swampy plains divided by the Paraguay River, in the southeast the border runs along the Parana River.
Languages: Spanish (State), Guarani. Paraguay is a unique example of a truly bilingual country: the vast majority of the population speaks both languages and uses them as appropriate. Spanish is the official language of literature and office work, and Guarani is used in everyday life. About 6% of the population speak only Spanish, about a quarter speak only Guarani, and about 70% of the population are bilingual.
Religion: Roman Catholics - 90%
The oldest known population of these territories - the Guarani Indians. Europeans first appeared here in the 16th century.
1537 - Asuncion is founded by the Spaniards.
1542-1640 - part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
1609 - Coming of the Order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
1617 - Paraguay gains autonomy within the Viceroyalty of Peru. Local power was exercised by the Jesuit order. The Jesuits created from the Indians self-defense units against Brazilian slave hunters. The Indians were attached to special settlements - reductions, headed by paters (priests). Pater's assistants were recruited from the local population - they wore the titles of korehidor (leader) and alkald (elder).
1768 - Spanish authorities defeat seven eastern missions and expel Jesuits from Paraguay on suspicion of separatism.
1776 - Paraguay becomes part of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata.
1811 - The separation of Rio de la Plata from Spain causes centrifugal tendencies within the self-proclaimed state, resulting in Paraguay becoming an independent state from both Spain and Argentina, the successor to the Republic of Rio de la Plata. France became the lifelong dictator of Paraguay.
1842 - Abolition of slavery.
1848 - Equality between Creoles and Indians is proclaimed.
1866-1870 - Paraguayan War with Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay (Triple Alliance War). About 1/2 of the territory and 4/5 of the population were lost. The economy was very undermined,