World War I

Article

July 6, 2022

World War I is a world war, a global armed conflict that developed primarily in Europe from July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918, in which 38 states with a population of 1.5 billion took part. Known at the time as The Great War (French: La Grande guerre) or "The War to End All Wars", it mobilized more than 70 million soldiers, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, as well as one of the deadliest conflicts in history, which historians estimate resulted in 8.5 million military deaths and 13 million civilian deaths. A series of genocides resulting from the war and the related Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 caused many additional millions of deaths worldwide. The conflict had a decisive influence on the history of the first half of the 20th century. On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb who was a Yugoslav nationalist and a member of the Serbian military society Black Hand, assassinated Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia on July 23. Serbia's response did not satisfy the Austrians, and they went to war. A network of interlocking alliances has widened and fueled the crisis, turning a bilateral problem in the Balkans into a crisis that has become a problem for much of Europe. By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente, consisting of France, Russia, and Great Britain; and the previously established Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The Triple Alliance was only defensive in nature, allowing Italy to stay out of the war until April 26, 1915, when it joined the Allied Powers after the deterioration of its relations with Austria-Hungary. The Russian Empire considered it necessary to support Serbia and approved partial mobilization after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital Belgrade, which was located a few kilometers from the border, with artillery on July 28, 1914. In the evening of July 30, full Russian mobilization was announced; the next day, Austria-Hungary and Nimes�