Proto-Slavic is a term used for the hypothetical language from which Slavic languages are derived. It existed in the period from the II-I centuries. BC e. - VII st. N. e. No written monuments of the Proto-Slavic language have been preserved, so the language was reconstructed on the basis of a comparison of authentically attested Slavic and other Indo-European languages.
The Proto-Slavic language was not something static, it changed over time and its forms can be reconstructed in different ways, depending on the chosen chronological section.
The term "Proto-Slavic" was formed by the suffix pra- from the word "Slavic", which imitates the German term Urslavisch, translating the prefix "Ur-" into Slavic "proto-". Similar terms seem to sound in other Slavic languages: white. Proto-Slavic, floor. prasłowiański, Czech. proslovanský, Slovak. praslovanský, bolg. Proto-Slavic, poppy. Proto-Slavic, Croatian Proto-Slavic, Serbian. Proto-Slavic, Slovene. praslovanskiSome researchers also use the term synonymous with "common Slavic language" (fr. slave commune, English. common Slavic, German. Gemeinslavisch, Croatian. općeslavenski) or "Slavic language-basis" in relation to the Proto-Slavic language. and kostrubatym due to the impossibility of forming an adjective from it).
A number of scholars (G. Golzer, R. Matasovich) propose to distinguish between Proto-Slavic (English Urslavisch, Croatian: praslavenski) and All-Slavic (French: Slavic commune, English: Common Slavic, German: Gemeinslavisch). , Croatian općeslavenski). The first refers to the language spoken by the Slavs before, during and immediately after their expansion, and the second to the period in the history of the Slavic languages after the disintegration of a single language. Close connections continued to exist between the dialects derived from it, which led to parallel changes.
Proto-Slavic should not be confused with other ancient Slavic languages: Old Russian (Old Ukrainian), Old Slavonic, as well as with modern Church Slavonic.
The speakers of the Proto-Slavic language did not have their own script, so in linguistics to record the reconstructed words of this language use a special phonomorphological transcription based on the Latin alphabet with diacritical marks, with the addition of Cyrillic symbols "b", "b" (which convey reduced vowels - character sign of proverbs'�