Plants

Article

July 5, 2022

The term "plants" usually refers to the representatives of the kingdom Green plants (Viridiplantae), and this article is about them. Sometimes this term is used only for terrestrial plants, that is, representatives of the Embryophyta taxon. Plants (Plantae), or green plants (Viridiplantae) are the kingdom of living organisms. The name Viridiplantae was proposed in 1981 to distinguish representatives of the kingdom from the previous definition of plants that did not form a monophyletic group. The kingdom is also known as Chlorobionta or the Chlorophyta/Embryophyta group. Most members of the kingdom were included in the kingdom of Plants (Plantae) in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel. Representatives of the kingdom are autotrophic organisms, which are characterized by the ability to photosynthesize and the presence of a dense cell membrane, which is formed mostly by cellulose. The reserve substance in plants is, as a rule, starch. Plants are the first link of all food chains, so the life of animals depends on them. They are a source of more than ten thousand biologically active substances that affect the human body and animals, in particular when consumed. Botany is the study of plants.

Biological classification of plants

The kingdom of plants has more than 500 thousand species. All plants are divided into 2 divisions: true green algae (Chlorophyta), which includes most green algae, and higher plants (Streptophyta), which includes some more complex green algae and all land plants. Earlier, the lower plants also included slimes, fungi, and all algae (diatom, brown, red, euglena, etc.), but at the beginning of the 21st century, the first two groups were classified into a separate kingdom - Fungi, and the taxonomy of the rest remained uncertain (incertae sedis). , sometimes they were included in the kingdom Protozoa. department Green algae (Chlorophyta) class Chlorophyceae (eg Chlamydomonas, Volvox) class Pedinophyceae class Prasinophyceae class Trebouxiophyceae (e.g. chlorella) class Ulvophyceaedepartment Higher plants (Streptophyta) class Chlorokybophyceae class Klebsormidiophyceae class Mesostigmatophyceae class Zygnemophyceae — Streptophytina class Charophyceae class Coleochaetophyceae — Embryophyta (land plants) — Anthocerotophyta (Anthocerotophyta) — Mosses, Bryophyta (Bryophyta) — Liverworts, Marchantiophyta (Marchantiophyta) — Vascular plants (Tracheophyta) — Plauniformes, Lycopodiophyta (Lycopodiophyta) class