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May 19, 2022

Saga (ancient Saga, MFA: [ˈsaːɣa] - legend) - original and translated epic (historical and heroic) works with poetic inserts, common in Ireland and Iceland (VIII-XIII centuries). Divided into early (oral) and late (written), created by anonymous authors (philids) - experts in ancient laws. The most common motifs of sagas - military exploits, cattle theft, matchmaking, sailing to strange lands, feasts. The sagas are reminiscent of knightly novels in style. Most of the sagas described military exploits, cattle theft, matchmaking, sailing to strange lands, feasts. Intertextual elements borrowed from ancient, biblical epics, etc., such as the Trojans, Jews, and others, were sometimes used, as well as apostolic ones, mostly translated from Latin, related to the introduction of Christianity in Scandinavia in the 11th and 12th centuries. In a metaphorical sense (and sometimes ironically) saga is also called literary works of other styles and eras (including modern) or life stories in general, which have something in common with the Old Norse sagas: usually some epic style or content and / or attitude to family stories of several generations. Some authors include the word "saga" in the title of their works. The name saga probably comes from the Icelandic verb segja - to speak, and refers to both oral and written narrative. Initially, the Icelanders used the term "saga" to refer to any prose story, but now it combines a set of literary monuments written at the time. The material for the sagas were also tatras. The systematization of sagas began in the twelfth century. Some of their plots (legends about Finn) spread beyond Ireland and Iceland, influenced the work of J. Macpherson, G. Ibsen, J. Galsworthy and others.

Canon (principle) of the saga

The saga always begins with the presentation of the protagonists, a description of their kind. Standard clichés are used: "There lived a man named…, he was a son…. He was married to…, their children were called…". All more or less significant actors are characterized as follows. Sometimes the story begins several generations before the appearance of the main character (heroes), going back to the time of the settlement of Iceland and the emergence of the Scandinavian Peninsula.