Siberia is a large historical and geographical region of Eurasia, stretching from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the hilly steppes of Kazakhstan and Mongolia and the forests of China in the south (about 3,500 km) and from the Urals in the west to the Pacific watersheds in the east ). The area of the region is about 10 million km.
Until 1917 (sometimes now, in particular in historical and ethnographic literature), the name of Siberia also applies to the Far East; together with it, Siberia has 12.8 million km (30% of the entire territory of Asia) and a population of 26 million. The southern border of Siberia is covered with the southern border of Russia with Kazakhstan and Mongolia. Siberia includes Yakutia, Tyva, Buryatia, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Altai Republic, Khakassia, Tyumen, Kurgan, Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo, Irkutsk regions and Transbaikalia.
The main geomorphological regions of Siberia: West Siberian Lowland (about 2 million km); its continuation in the northeast - the North Siberian lowland; The Central Siberian Plateau between the rivers Yenisei and Lena (average height 500-700 m, the highest - 1,701 m), divided by deep valleys; the basis is Paleozoic sediments); the mountains of Southern Siberia (Altai - up to 4,506 m, the Western and Eastern Sayan Mountains, the Yablonov Range, the Stanov Range, etc.) and the mountains of Northeastern Siberia - from the Verkhoyansk Range in the west to the Kolyma Highlands in the east, with the Yana and Indigirka lowlands and Kolyma. Siberia has rich natural resources, large deposits of coal and lignite (Kuznetsk, Kansk-Achinsk, Irkutsk and other basins), oil and gas, iron ore, rare (gold) and non-ferrous metals, diamonds (Western Yakutia) and more.
Siberia's climate is continental and in most parts of the region moderately cold, in the north - subpolar and polar, in the southwest - moderately warm and dry. The average annual temperature is almost everywhere below 0 ° C. (in the south-east from -15 to -18 ° С), average monthly temperatures in July - from +2… + 5 ° С in the far north, to + 22 ° С in the south-west, in January from -16 ° С in the south-west to - 50 ° C in the northeast (in the vicinity of Oymyakon minimum temperature -71 ° C - the absolute minimum of the northern hemisphere). Precipitation (most of them