Statistics

Article

May 19, 2022

Statistics is a discipline that collects, organizes, analyzes, interprets, and presents data. In the application of statistics to a scientific, industrial or social problem, it is customary to start with the general population (statistical population) or statistical model for research. General aggregates can be diverse groups of people or objects, such as "all the people living in a country" or "each of the atoms that make up the crystal." Statistics deal with all aspects of data, including planning for data collection in terms of planning surveys and experiments. See glossary of probability theory and statistics. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing special experiment designs and samples for survey. Representative sampling provides an opportunity to reasonably extend the conclusions and decisions from this sample to the population as a whole. Experimental study involves measuring the system under study, manipulating the system, and then performing additional measurements using the same procedure to determine if the manipulation has changed the value of these measurements. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation. Data analysis uses two main statistical methods: descriptive statistics, which summarize sample data using statistical indices such as mean and standard deviation, and inductive statistics, which draws conclusions from inferential statistics. data that are subject to random variability (eg, observation errors, sample variation). Descriptive statistics are often most interested in two sets of properties of a distribution (sample or population): the central trend (or position) seeks to characterize the central or typical value of this distribution, while variance (or variability) characterizes the extent to which members of this distribution deviate from its center. , and from each other. Conclusions in mathematical statistics are made in the framework