October 25, 2021
Toponym (from the Greek τόπος - place and Greek όνομα - name) - the name of the place, region, settlement, landform, any part of the Earth's surface, ie geographical name. For the names of settlements - cities, towns, villages, etc. - it is customary to use the term oikonym in addition to the general term "toponym"; for the names of water bodies (rivers, lakes, seas) - the term hydronym; for relief objects, ie orographic objects (mountains, ridges, hills, valleys, plateaus, lowlands, mountain gorges, etc.) - oronym. Names of places (ie toponyms) are often given by the indigenous population of a certain territory, for which each of the toponyms has a semantic meaning. Due to this, it is possible to establish, for example, that a certain people once lived in a certain area, which is different from those who live there today. That is, place names often characterize the territory in terms of those peoples who once inhabited a particular area. Varieties of toponyms Horonyms - the names of any territories (regions, districts). Oikonymi (from the Greek οἶκος - housing) - the names of settlements. Astionim (from the Greek ἄστυ - city) - the names of cities. Urbanonyms (from the Latin urbanus - urban) - the names of inner city objects. Hodonyms (from the Greek ὁδός - path, road, street, channel) - the names of streets. Agoronyms (from the Greek ἀγορά - square) - the names of squares. Hydronyms (from the Greek ὕδωρ - water) - the names of water bodies. Pelagonyms are the names of the seas. Limnonyms are the names of lakes. Potamonyms are the names of rivers. Gelonimy - the names of swamps. Dream names (from the Greek δρῦς - tree) - the names of forests. Oronyms (from the Greek ὄρος - mountain) - the names of landforms. Speleonym (from the Greek σπήλαιον - cave) - the names of caves. Dromonyms (from the Greek δρόμος - running, movement, path) - the names of communication routes. Geonyms - names of roads, passages. Macrotoponyms (from the Greek μακρός - large) - the names of large uninhabited objects. Microtoponyms (from the Greek μικρός - small) - the names of small uninhabited objects (from the other. Greek μικρός - Small). Anthropotoponyms (from the Greek ἄνθρωπος - man) - the names of geographical objects formed on behalf of man.