October 25, 2021

Toponym (from the Greek τόπος - place and Greek όνομα - name) - the name of the place, region, settlement, landform, any part of the Earth's surface, ie geographical name. For the names of settlements - cities, towns, villages, etc. - it is customary to use the term oikonym in addition to the general term "toponym"; for the names of water bodies (rivers, lakes, seas) - the term hydronym; for relief objects, ie orographic objects (mountains, ridges, hills, valleys, plateaus, lowlands, mountain gorges, etc.) - oronym. Names of places (ie toponyms) are often given by the indigenous population of a certain territory, for which each of the toponyms has a semantic meaning. Due to this, it is possible to establish, for example, that a certain people once lived in a certain area, which is different from those who live there today. That is, place names often characterize the territory in terms of those peoples who once inhabited a particular area. Varieties of toponyms Horonyms - the names of any territories (regions, districts). Oikonymi (from the Greek οἶκος - housing) - the names of settlements. Astionim (from the Greek ἄστυ - city) - the names of cities. Urbanonyms (from the Latin urbanus - urban) - the names of inner city objects. Hodonyms (from the Greek ὁδός - path, road, street, channel) - the names of streets. Agoronyms (from the Greek ἀγορά - square) - the names of squares. Hydronyms (from the Greek ὕδωρ - water) - the names of water bodies. Pelagonyms are the names of the seas. Limnonyms are the names of lakes. Potamonyms are the names of rivers. Gelonimy - the names of swamps. Dream names (from the Greek δρῦς - tree) - the names of forests. Oronyms (from the Greek ὄρος - mountain) - the names of landforms. Speleonym (from the Greek σπήλαιον - cave) - the names of caves. Dromonyms (from the Greek δρόμος - running, movement, path) - the names of communication routes. Geonyms - names of roads, passages. Macrotoponyms (from the Greek μακρός - large) - the names of large uninhabited objects. Microtoponyms (from the Greek μικρός - small) - the names of small uninhabited objects (from the other. Greek μικρός - Small). Anthropotoponyms (from the Greek ἄνθρωπος - man) - the names of geographical objects formed on behalf of man.


The history of toponyms is studied by the science of toponymy. Toponymy establishes, for example, the following facts. The name Britain comes from the name of the Celtic tribe of Britons who lived there for a while

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