Transport interchange - an engineering structure (or complex of structures), which provides the ability to change the direction of traffic flows at their junctions or intersections. The traffic interchange can be arranged in one, two or more levels.
Complete and incomplete solutions
A traffic interchange is called complete if there are no conflicting points of intersection of flows and according to the scheme of organization of left-hand traffic. In the absence of at least one left-turn exits, the junction is incomplete, because it either does not provide traffic in all directions, or there are conflicting points of intersection.
Solutions between highways with regulated access
Solutions with four directions
Cloverleaf interchange (English: cloverleaf interchange, Russian: Клеверный лист) is a two-level interchange with four directions, in which all turns to the left are made in the form of loop-like congresses. That is, the car instead of turning left by 90 ° makes a right turn by 270 °.
The main advantages are that only one bridge (between the main perpendicular roads) is needed, which makes such junctions inexpensive provided there is enough land, and they also do not require any traffic lights.
The main disadvantages are low capacity and alienation of large areas of land. Usually, such a solution is not arranged in settlements.
The Maltese Cross (English: Malteserkreuz) is a four-way interchange in which both an indirect left turn and a right turn are available.
Clover cumulative leaf [specify term]
A hybrid type of interchange (cloverstack interchange), which serves less busy flows through loop-like exits, and more intense flows - through cross-exits (as in cumulative interchanges).
Another alternative to cumulative interchanges is turbine interchange. The turbine junction requires more levels (usually two or three), while the exits are arranged around the center of the junction in a spiral.
The windmill interchange is similar to a turbine, but not