October 17, 2021

Turkey (Turk. Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), the official name of the Republic of Turkey (Tur. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (listen)) is a transcontinental state located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula, in its lesser part in the Western Akania. -Eastern Europe. Eastern Thrace, the European part of Turkey, is separated from Anatolia by the Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (collectively known as the Turkish / Black Sea Straits). Istanbul, located in both Europe and Asia, is the country's largest city, while Ankara is the capital. Turkey borders Greece and Bulgaria to its northwest; in the north it is washed by the Black Sea; in the northeast - with Georgia; in the east - with Armenia, the Azerbaijani exclave Nakhichevan and Iran; in the southeast - with Iraq and Syria; in the south it is washed by the Mediterranean Sea; and in the west - the Aegean Sea. About 70-80 percent of the country's citizens self-identify as Turks, while the Kurds are the largest national minority, accounting for 15-20 percent of the country's population. Throughout history, the region has been inhabited by various civilizations, including Anatolian peoples, Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. Hellenization began in the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era. The Seljuks began migrating to these lands in the eleventh century, and their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the founding of Turkey. The Konya sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, after which it disintegrated into small principalities known as the Beyliks. Beginning at the end of the 13th century, the Ottomans began to unite the Beyliks and conquer the Balkans. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire covered most of southeastern Europe, western Asia, and North Africa and became a world power. Beginning at the end of the eighteenth century, the power of the empire diminished with the gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakened social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmud II in the early nineteenth century

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