Turin (Italian: Torino; Latin: Turin) is a large industrial city, a business and cultural center in northwestern Italy, the capital of the Piedmont region and the province of Turin. Located in the Alps on the west bank of the Po River.
The population is 909,538 (2009), 1.7 million people live in the agglomeration.
The annual festival takes place on June 24. The patron saint is John the Baptist (San Giovanni Battista). The city is famous for the Shroud of Turin, Juventus and Torino football clubs. The main offices of the Fiat, Lancia and Alfa Romeo automobile companies are located here. In 2006, the 20th Winter Olympic Games were held in Turin.
The name of the city comes from the Celtic word "Tau", which means mountains. Turin is the capital of the Piedmont region, which is famous for its fine cuisine and wines. Since 1574, the capital of the region, which was owned by the Savoy dynasty from the 11th century.
In 1548, the Dukes of Savoy, who moved here from Chambery, chose Turin as the capital of their stay. A few decades later, the Royal Palace was built here. At the end of the 16th century, the Shroud, a religious relic known from now on as the Shroud of Turin, was transported from Chambery to the new capital.
Duke Emmanuel Philibert restored the University of Turin, founded in 1404, but then liquidated.
The capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia
The prosperity of the city began in the 18th century, when it became the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The newly minted Sardinian kings wanted to have palaces and squares in the capital like in Paris, and hunting castles in the suburbs. Versailles served as an example. But they took only the idea (the Palace of Versailles was not copied, as in the German principalities), and the implementation of the idea followed its own forms.
The capital's shine was provided by the invited glorified artists. It was here that playwright Carlo Goldoni worked at the Royal Theatre. Filippo Yuvara (1685-1735) was appointed as the chief architect. He straightened crooked streets and planned wide new ones, which began to favorably distinguish Turin from many chaotically built medieval cities in Italy. The city gained "Europeanness", regularity and became a mandatory point for grand tours of aristocratic travelers from France and England.
A few kilometers from the city is the country residence of the monarchs from the Savoy family