Uzhhorod

Article

August 8, 2022

Uzhgorod is a city on the Uzh River in the Zakarpattia region of Ukraine, the center of the Uzhgorod urban community and the Uzhgorod district. Located 811 km from Kyiv, on the border with Slovakia. The city at the foot of the Carpathians is the smallest regional center of the country, but it has a rich and ancient history. Founded in the 9th century. It came under the rule of Hungary, and later - Austria-Hungary. It was a stronghold of the Druget family for a long time. Uzhgorod developed as an industrial and cultural center of Transcarpathia. In 1919, it was the capital of Subcarpathian Rus as part of Czechoslovakia, in 1945 it became part of the Ukrainian SSR, and since 1991 it has been part of independent Ukraine. The heart of Uzhgorod is its castle, numerous tourists are also attracted by the church, synagogue and bishop's residence. In 1646, under the auspices of the Vatican, the Uzhgorod Union was proclaimed and the Greek Catholic Church was formed in Transcarpathia.

Etymology

The message of Al-Idrisi in 1154 is the oldest written source that mentions Uzhhorod. According to historical documents, from the time of its first mention until the end of the First World War, the city had only one name: Ungvar (changes of Gunkbar, Gungvar, Ongvar). The word itself consists of two parts: "Ung" and "var". As for the second of them, scientists are unanimous here, since the word "var" in Hungarian means "fortification, fortress, castle" (it got into the Hungarian language from Iranian). Also, the etymology of the word "Ung" causes great debate. In 1860, one of the first historians of the city, Karoi Meysaros (1821-1890), claimed that "Ung" supposedly means "fast". Meanwhile, completely different words are used to define this concept in Slavic languages. One of the researchers, Ede Mauks, based on the fact that among the nomadic Turkic peoples, tribal leaders were called "Ong", and since, according to the historical works of the Hungarian author Anonymous (beginning of the 13th century), Arpad was one of the leaders of the ancient Hungarians at the end of the 9th century. — at the beginning of the X century. - captured Uzhgorod, then the fortress (city) got the name "Ongvar" ("Ungvar"). However, as it turned out, Arpad had the title "Yuli" or "Dyula" (which later gave rise to the proper name Dyula), not "Ong". Pal Yasoi's assumption that this name comes from the name of the ambassador of the Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius Oneges addressed to the king is also not confirmed.