October 25, 2021
Ukraine (MFA: [ʊkrɐˈjɪn̪ɐ] (listen)) is a country located in Eastern Europe, in the southwestern part of the Eastern European Plain. The area is 603,548 km2. The population, according to the State Statistics Service, is 41,588,354 people as of January 1, 2021. The largest country in terms of area, whose territory lies entirely in Europe. It borders the Republic of Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and the Republic of Moldova to the southwest, and the Russian Federation to the east and northeast. In the south and southeast it is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. On the modern territory of Ukraine there are known settlements of many archeological cultures, starting from the Paleolithic era - Mousterian, Grebenykiv, Kukretsky, Trypillya, Middle Stog, pit, battle axes, Chornoliska, etc. In ancient times, state formations of Scythians, ancient Greek colonists and Goths appeared on the territory of Ukraine, but the starting point of Ukrainian statehood and culture is considered to be Russia of the IX-XIII centuries. After the Mongol invasion, its successor was the Russian Kingdom of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, which was later absorbed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland. In the 16th century, after the unification of the two states into a federal Commonwealth, the lands of the former kingdom again found themselves within one state. The formation of the modern Ukrainian nation intensified during the Khmelnytsky region of 1648-1657, which resulted in the formation of an autonomous Cossack state, the Hetmanate, or the Zaporozhian Army. The next ten years are known as the Ruin - a period of hetman strife, as a result - the division of the Cossack state between the Commonwealth and the Muscovy. Over the next century, the lands of the Left Bank, which came under Moscow's jurisdiction, were gradually deprived of autonomy. The right bank and west of Ukraine, after three divisions of the Commonwealth and several Russo-Turkish wars, were divided between the Russian and Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) empires. During the Ukrainian revolution of the early twentieth century, several nation-states emerged on Ukrainian lands: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Ukrainian State, and the Western Ukrainian People.