Ukrainian Insurgent Army

Article

October 25, 2021

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) is a military-political formation that operated in Ukraine from 1942 to 1956, an armed wing of the OUNR. It began its activities in the spring of 1943 in the territories that were part of: the Reich Commissariat of Ukraine (General District of Volyn-Podillya) - from the end of March 1943, the Governor-General (Galicia - from the end of 1943, Kholmshchyna - from the autumn of 1943) and Romanian Transnistria (Northern Bukovina) - since the summer of 1944. Some detachments also operated in eastern Ukraine, Donbass and even the Kuban. The official date of the UPA's creation is October 14, 1942, although some historians consider this date to be conditionally propagandistic and postpone the founding period to about six months. In May 1943, OUN (b) units began to be officially called the "Ukrainian Insurgent Army." The ranks of the UPA were replenished by volunteers from among the ideological nationalists, defectors from the auxiliary police, and deserters from the Red Army. The main task of the UPA was to prepare for a powerful uprising, which was to begin at a favorable time when the USSR and Germany would exhaust each other in a bloody war, and then to create an independent single Ukrainian state that would include all ethnic Ukrainian lands. In addition to the vast majority of Ukrainians, Jews, Russians, and fighters of other nationalities fought in the UPA. From the very beginning of its existence, the UPA fought on three fronts: with the troops of the Third Reich and its allies, the Polish Resistance Movement (the Home Army, the People's Army) and the Soviet partisans. With the return of the Soviet regime to Western Ukraine, the UPA was able to actively resist the punitive detachments of the NKVD for several more years. The UPA operated until 1954, when its active activities ceased. Some centers of resistance continued during the 1950s and 1960s. From May to November 1943, the Commander-in-Chief of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army was Dmytro Klyachkivsky, from 1944 to 1950 - General Roman Shukhevych, from 1950 to 1954 - Vasyl Kuk. The attitude towards the UPA in Ukrainian society for years after the restoration of independence in 1991 fluctuates between the positive ("independence fighters") and the opposite ("German collaborators"): the very assessment of

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