Duchamp fountain


May 19, 2022

Fountain is the most famous ready-to-make ready-made presentation by Marcel Duchamp in 1917, who is an ordinary urinal with the caption "R. Mutt" (R. M.). Fool). It was presented as a fountain for the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists. The committee officially rejected Duchamp's work, despite the fact that he had paid the participant's fee. The work was not exhibited. The Fountain was photographed in Alfred Stiglitz's studio. The photo was published in The Blind Man magazine, but the original is considered lost. "Fountain" has the status of an important milestone in the art of the XX century and is recognized by British experts as the most influential work of its time. Since then, copies of the urinal have been exhibited in several museums.


Nearly two years before the Fountain was created, Marcel Duchamp arrived in the United States, where he was involved in the Dada Fronter anti-art cultural movement in New York. According to one version, the creation of "Fountain" began when Duchamp, accompanied by artist Joseph Stella and art collector Walter Ahrensberg, purchased a standard model of urinal produced by JL Mott Iron Works on Fifth Avenue 118. Duchamp brought a urinal to his studio. at 90 degrees, signing: “R. Mutt 1917 ». According to another version, in 1917 Duchamp sent a letter to his sister stating that one of his friends under the pseudonym Richard Mutt gave him a porcelain urinal as a sculpture. Duchamp never acknowledged co-authorship in the creation of his work, but two people called themselves co-authors: Dadaist Freitag-Leringhoven and Allen Norton, who published an essay in The Blind Man magazine on Duchamp's Fountain. When Duchamp was a member of the board of the Society of Independent Artists, heated debates erupted over the Fountain, as the other members did not know who authored the Fountain. Because of this, they decided not to allow the work to the exhibition. Duchamp left the council in protest. The second issue of The Blind Man described the controversy of famous Dadaists (Beatrice Wood, Walter Ahrensberg) over whether Duchamp's work could be considered art. In particular, Beatrice noted the following: It does not matter whether Mr. Mutt (Duchamp) made the fountain with his own hands or not. He chose him. He took an inconspicuous household item and arranged the composition so that the new