French mandate in Syria and Lebanon

Article

May 19, 2022

French mandate in Syria and Lebanon - the mandate of the League of Nations granted after the First World War and the division of the Ottoman Empire. For two years, after the end of the war in 1918, and under the Sykes-Pico Agreement signed between Britain and France during the war, the British gained control of Ottoman Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) and southern Ottoman Syria (Palestine and Jordan). , while the French controlled the rest of Ottoman Syria (modern-day Syria, Lebanon, Alexandretta, and other parts of southeastern Turkey). In the early 1920s, British and French control of these territories was enshrined in the League of Nations mandate system, and France was granted a mandate in Syria on September 29, 1923, which included present-day Lebanon and Alexandretta (Hatay). In addition to modern Syria. The French mandate in Syria lasted until 1943, when two independent countries withdrew from the mandate, Syria and Lebanon, and Hatay was transferred to Turkey in 1939. French troops left Syria and Lebanon in 1946. Arab Kingdom of Syria After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in Syria, British troops under Marshal Edmund Henry Allenby entered Damascus in 1918, accompanied by Arab uprising led by Faisal, son of Sharif Hussein of Mecca. Faisal formed the first Arab government in Damascus in October 1918 and appointed al-Rikabi military governor. The new Arab administration has set up local authorities in major Syrian cities, and a pan-Arab flag has been raised across Syria. The Arabs hoped that the British would keep their promises, and the new Arab state would include all Arab lands from Aleppo in northern Syria to Aden in southern Yemen. However, General Allenby, in accordance with the secret Sykes-Pico agreements between Great Britain and France, referred to the Arab administration only the interior of Syria (eastern zone). Palestine (southern zone) was reserved for the British and on October 8, French troops landed in Beirut and occupied all Lebanese coastal areas to Nakuri (western zone), replacing British troops. France immediately eliminated the local Arab government in the region. France demanded the full implementation of the Sykes-Pico and Rose agreements