July 5, 2022

Scotland (Alba, Scottish Gael. Alba MFA: [ˈalˠ̪əpə], English Scotland MFA: [ˈskɒt.lənd]) is a founding country in Western Europe, which is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Once an independent state. It occupies the northern part of Great Britain, borders England in the south, the North Sea washes its shores in the east, the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west, the North Channel and the Irish Sea in the southwest. In addition, Scotland consists of about 790 islands, including the Shetland, Orkney and Hebridean archipelagos. Edinburgh, the country's second largest city and capital, is one of Europe's largest financial centers. Edinburgh was the center of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into a powerful commercial, intellectual and industrial nation. Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and is now the center of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scotland's water area includes a large part of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, which contains the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This gave the city of Aberdeen - the country's third largest city - the title of European oil capital. The Kingdom of Scotland as a sovereign state emerged in the early Middle Ages and lasted until 1707, although it had been in a personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland since 1603, when King James VI of Scotland inherited the English and Irish thrones. On May 1, 1707, Scotland entered into a political union with England to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain. This union was the result of the Treaty of Union signed in 1706 and the adoption of two identical Acts of Union by the parliaments of both countries, despite considerable anti-union opposition. and protests in Edinburgh, Glasgow and other cities. Scotland's legal system remains separate from that of England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Scotland retains a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law. The continued development of legal, educational and religious institutions separately from the rest of the United Kingdom has led to the preservation and nurturing of a distinctive Scottish culture and national identity.