1265

Article

May 25, 2022

High Middle Ages • Reconquista • Crusades • Mongol Empire

Geopolitical situation

Michael VIII Palaeologus was emperor of the Byzantine Empire (until 1282). The period of the interregnum (1273) lasted in the Holy Roman Empire. France was ruled by Louis IX (until 1270). The Apennine Peninsula is divided: the north belongs to the Holy Roman Empire, the middle part is occupied by the Papal States, the south belongs to the Kingdom of Sicily. Some cities in the north: Venice, Pisa, Genoa, etc., have the status of republic cities. Almost the entire Iberian Peninsula is occupied by Christian Castile, Leon (Asturias, Galicia), Navarre, the Kingdom of Aragon (Aragon, Barcelona) and Portugal, under the rule of the Moors remained only the lands in the south. Henry III was King of England (until 1272) and King of Denmark was Eric V (until 1286). Yaroslav Yaroslavych (before 1271) has a label from the Golden Horde for his reigns in Kyiv and Volodymyr-na-Klyazmi. King of Russia Shvarno Danilovich ruled in Galicia (until 1269), Roman Mikhailovich the Old - in Chernihiv (until 1288). At the head of the Kingdom of Hungary is Bela IV (until 1270). Boleslaw V the Shy reigns in Krakow (until 1279). The Mongol Empire occupies most of Asia. Northern China is conquered by the Mongols, in the south the Song Dynasty is still resisting. Mamluks rule in Egypt. Small areas in the Middle East are held by the Crusaders. The Almohads still retain power in the Maghreb. The Delhi Sultanate is the most powerful state in northern India, and Chola dominates southern India. The Kamakura period continues in Japan. The Mayan civilization is going through a postclassical period. The Aztec civilization began to emerge.

Events

The first meeting of the elected British Parliament took place. English Prince Edward I the Long-legged defeated the army of barons at the Battle of Ivshem, which led to the restoration of the reign of Henry III. The pontificate of Clement IV began. In his letter to his nephew, he first mentioned the fisherman's ring. Scotland captured the Isle of Man. The horde of Khan Nogai devastated Thrace. Khan Khubilai resumed the offensive on the Song dynasty. After Hulagu's death, Abaka Khan became Ilhan of Iran. Giyas-ud-din Balban became the Sultan of Delhi.

Born

May 21 - Dante Alighieri, Italian Renaissance poet.