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Article

July 5, 2022

Late Middle Ages • Reconquista • Hansa • Avignon Captivity of the Popes • Mongol Empire

Geopolitical situation

Andronicus II Palaeologus is the emperor of the Byzantine Empire (until 1328). Frederick of Austria and Ludwig of Bavaria are fighting for the title of King of Germany. In France, the reign of Louis X began (until 1316). The Apennine peninsula is divided: the north belongs to the Holy Roman Empire, the middle part is occupied by the Papal States, the south belongs to the Kingdom of Naples. Some northern cities: Venice, Pisa, Genoa, etc., have the status of city-republics. The struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines continues. Almost the entire Iberian Peninsula is occupied by Christian Castile and Leon, the Kingdom of Aragon and Portugal, only the lands in the very south remained under the power of the Moors. Edward II is King of England (until 1327) and Eric VI is King of Denmark (until 1319). Russian lands are under the rule of the Golden Horde. The Galicia-Volyn principality is headed by Lev Yuriyovych and Andriy Yuriyovych, Mykhailo Yaroslavych rules in the Volodymyr-Suzdal principality (until 1318). The Mongol Empire covers most of Asia, but it is divided into separate uluses, which are at war with each other. In China, in particular, the Mongolian Yuan dynasty rules. Mamluks hold power in Egypt. The Marinids rule in the Maghreb. The Delhi Sultanate is the most powerful state in North India, while South India is dominated by the Hoysala State and the Pandya State. The Kamakura period continues in Japan. The Maya civilization is experiencing a postclassic period. The Aztec civilization began to emerge.

Events

On March 18, Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Templar Order, was burned at the stake. According to legend, he cursed his enemies Philip IV the Fair, Guillaume de Nogare and Pope Clement V. A scandal broke out in France related to the case of the Nelle Tower - accusations of adultery of the king's daughters-in-law. On November 29, Philip IV the Fair died, and his son Louis X became the king of France. Pope Clement V appointed the Neapolitan King Robert as imperial vicar. Pope Clement V died on April 20. The Holy See will remain vacant until 1316. On June 24, the battle of Bannockburn took place, in which the 6,000-strong detachment of the Scottish king Rob