August 8, 2022

Late Middle Ages • Renaissance • Reconquista • Hansa • Aztec Triple Alliance • Inca Empire

Geopolitical situation

The Ottoman state was headed by Mehmed II Fatih (until 1481). The Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is Frederick III. Louis XI reigned in France (until 1483). The Apennine peninsula is divided: the north belongs to the Holy Roman Empire, the middle part is occupied by the Papal States, the south belongs to the Kingdom of Naples. Some cities of the north: Venice, Florence, Genoa, etc., have the status of city-republics. Almost the entire Iberian Peninsula is occupied by Christian Castile and León, ruled by Enrique IV (until 1474), the Kingdom of Aragon led by Juan II (until 1479), and Portugal, ruled by Afonso V (until 1481). Only the lands in the very south remained under the power of the Moors. Edward IV is the king of England (until 1470), the king of Denmark and Norway - Christian I (until 1481), Sweden - Karl VIII Knutson (until 1457). The king of Hungary is Matthew Corvinus (until 1490), and of Bohemia - George of Podjebrad (until 1471). Casimir IV Jagiellonian reigns in Poland, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (until 1492). Part of the Russian lands is under the rule of the Golden Horde. Galicia is part of Poland. Volyn belongs to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Moscow principality was headed by Basil II the Dark (until 1462). In the west of the Eurasian steppes, the Kazan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the Nogai Horde separated from the Golden Horde. The Mamluks rule in Egypt, and the Marinids rule in the Maghreb. China is ruled by the Ming dynasty. Significant states of Hindustan are Delhi Sultanate, Bahmani, Vijayanagara. The Muromachi period continues in Japan. The Aztec Triple Alliance led by Montezuma I (until 1469) ruled the Valley of Mexico. The Maya civilization is experiencing a postclassic period. Panchacutec Yupanqui rules the Inca Empire.


On February 2, at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross, Edward York defeated the Lancastrians led by Owen Tudor. On February 17, at the Second Battle of St. Albans, English Queen Margaret of Anjou defeated the Earl of Warwick and freed her husband, King Henry VI, from captivity. On March 29, in the battle of Towton, Edward York won a decisive victory over the Lancastrians, which opened the way for him to the throne. Edward IV ascended the English throne, starting the York dynasty. King Fr