July 5, 2022

Renaissance • Reformation • Age of great geographical discoveries • Hansa

Geopolitical situation

The Ottoman state was headed by Suleiman I the Magnificent (until 1566). The emperor of the Holy Roman Empire is Charles V Habsburg (until 1555). Francis I reigns in France (until 1547). The central part of the Apennine Peninsula is occupied by the Papal Region. The Kingdom of Naples in the south was captured by Spain. The Republic of Venice remains independent, the Duchy of Florence, Genoa and the Duchy of Milan are part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Spanish kingdom was ruled by Charles I (until 1555). In Portugal reigns Juan III the Pious (until 1557). Henry VIII is the king of England (until 1547). King of Denmark and Norway — Christian III (until 1559). The king of Sweden was Gustav I Vasa (until 1560). The king of part of Hungary and Bohemia is the Roman king Ferdinand I Habsburg (until 1564). Most of Hungary is ruled by Janos Zapoljai as a vassal of the Turkish sultan. Sigismund I the Old reigns in Poland (until 1548), he remains the prince of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Galicia is part of Poland. Volyn belongs to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Moscow Principality was headed by Ivan IV (until 1575). In the west of the Eurasian steppes, there are the Kazan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, the Astrakhan Khanate, and the Nogai Horde. Egypt was captured by the Turks. The Shah of Iran is the Safavid Tahmasp I. China is ruled by the Ming Dynasty. The great states of Hindustan are the Great Mughal Empire, the Bijapur Sultanate, and Vijayanagara. The Muromachi period continues in Japan. The conquest of America by Europeans continues. The viceroyalty of New Spain exists on the conquered lands of the Aztecs.


The war between Muscovy and Lithuania ended with the signing of peace for 5 years. According to the peace agreement, Moscow ceded Gomel to the Lithuanians. The Turks failed to capture Corfu, but Khair al-Din Barbarossa's fleet took numerous islands from Venice. On June 2, Pope Paul III published the encyclical Sublimis Deus, which declared the natives of the New World to be intelligent creatures with souls who were forbidden to be enslaved and plundered. On June 24, Ignatius Loyola and his followers from the Paris Society of Jesus were ordained. Three years later, Pope Paul III will approve the Society as a Jesuit Order. Ko�