Reformation • Epoch of great geographical discoveries • Hansa • Dutch Revolution • Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth • Zaporizhzhya Sich
The Ottoman Empire was headed by Ottoman II (until 1622). Under the rule of the Ottoman sultan are the Middle East and Egypt, the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, part of the Caucasus, large areas in Europe: Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The vassals of the Ottomans are Wallachia and Moldova.
The Holy Roman Empire is the most powerful state in Europe. Its territory includes, in addition to German lands, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and northern Italy. Its emperor is Ferdinand II of the Habsburg family (until 1637). The Thirty Years' War continues in the empire.
Habsburg Philip IV the Great was king of Spain (until 1665) and Portugal. He owns the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, New Spain, New Granada and New Castile in America, and the Philippines. Portugal, despite the rule of the Spanish king, remains independent. It has assets in Brazil, Africa, India, Ceylon, the Indian Ocean and Indonesia.
The north of the Netherlands is occupied by the Republic of the United Provinces. King of France - Louis XIII the Fair (until 1643). The King of England was James I Stewart (until 1625). King of Denmark and Norway - Christian IV of Denmark (until 1648), Sweden - Gustav II Adolf (until 1632). The Venetian Republic and the Papal States are independent on the Apennine Peninsula.
The king of the Commonwealth, which owns the Ukrainian lands, is Sigismund III Vaz (until 1632). In the south of Ukraine there is the Zaporozhian Sich.
Tsar of Muscovy is Mikhail Romanov (until 1645). There is the Crimean Khanate, the Nogai Horde.
The Shah of Iran is the Safavid Abbas I the Great (until 1629).
Significant states of Hindustan are the Mughal Empire, the Bijapur Sultanate, the Sultanate of Golkond, Vijayanagar. China is ruled by the Ming Dynasty, the Manchus formed the Late Jin Dynasty. In Japan, the Edo period continues.
On September 1-29, the Battle of Khotyn lasted, in which the Commonwealth's troops with the Ukrainian Cossacks stopped the Ottoman Empire's offensive.
On October 8, the Khotyn Peace Treaty was signed. The Ottomans received Khotyn, but pledged not to attack Ukraine.
The Tatar invasion affected lands near Lutsk and the Carpathians, including Sniatyn, Stebnyk, and Kolomyia.
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