1681

Article

January 22, 2022

The era of great geographical discoveries • The first scientific revolution • The Commonwealth • Zaporozhye Sich • Ruin

Geopolitical situation

The Ottoman Empire was headed by Mehmed IV (until 1687). Under the rule of the Ottoman sultan are the Middle East and Egypt, the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, part of the Caucasus, large areas in Europe: Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The vassals of the Ottomans are Wallachia and Moldova. The Holy Roman Empire is the most powerful state in Europe. Its territory includes, in addition to German lands, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, and northern Italy. Its emperor - Leopold I Habsburg (until 1705). Habsburg Charles II The Enchanted King of Spain (until 1700). He owns the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, New Spain, New Granada and New Castile in America, and the Philippines. The King of Portugal is formally Alfonso VI under the regency of his younger brother Pedro II. Portugal has possessions in Brazil, Africa, India, the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. The north of the Netherlands is occupied by the Republic of the United Provinces. It has colonies in North America, Indonesia, Formosa and Ceylon. King of France - Louis XIV (until 1715). France has colonies in North America. King of England - Charles II Stewart (until 1685). England has colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India. King of Denmark and Norway - Christian V (until 1699), King of Sweden - Charles XI (until 1697). The Venetian Republic and the Papal States are independent on the Apennine Peninsula. King of the Commonwealth - Jan III Sobieski (until 1696). Tsar of Muscovy is Fedor Alekseevich (until 1682). Ukraine is divided along the Dnieper between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. There are two hetmans: George Duka on the Right Bank, Ivan Samoilovich on the Left Bank. In the south of Ukraine there is the Zaporozhian Sich. There is the Crimean Khanate, the Nogai Horde. Iran is ruled by the Safavids. Significant states of Hindustan are the Mughal Empire, ruled by Aurangzeb, the Bijapur Sultanate, the Golkond Sultanate, and the Maratha Empire. China is ruled by the Qing Dynasty. In Japan, the Edo period continues.

Events

In Ukraine

On January 13, the Bakhchisaray Agreement was signed between Muscovy and the Ottoman Empire, according to which Ukraine was divided into two parts along the Dnieper. The treaty ended the Moscow-Turkish war and established the lane

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