July 5, 2022

The first scientific revolution • The Enlightenment • The Glukhiv period in the history of the Hetmanate • The Russian Empire

Geopolitical situation

In the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Osman III was succeeded by Mustafa III (until 1774). The Ottomans ruled the Middle East and Egypt, the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, part of the Transcaucasia, significant territories in Europe: Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The vassals of the Ottomans are Wallachia and Moldova. In addition to the German lands, the Holy Roman Empire included Hungary with Croatia, Transylvania, Bohemia, Northern Italy, and the Austrian Netherlands. Its emperor is Franz I (until 1765). Maria Theresa has the title of Queen of Hungary. The king of Prussia is Frederick II (until 1786). France, ruled by Louis XV (until 1774), took the leading position in Europe. France has colonies in North America and India. Fernando VI reigns in Spain (until 1759). The Kingdom of Spain includes southern Italy, New Spain, New Granada and the Viceroyalty of Peru in America, the Philippines. Jose I reigns in Portugal (until 1777). Portugal has possessions in Brazil, Africa, India, the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. The north of the Netherlands is occupied by the Republic of the United Provinces. It has colonies in North America, Indonesia, Formosa and Ceylon. Great Britain is ruled by George II (until 1760). Britain has colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India. The king of Denmark and Norway is Frederick V (until 1766), Adolf Frederick sits on the Swedish throne (until 1771). The Republic of Venice and the Papal States are independent on the Apennine Peninsula. Augustus III Frederick reigned in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (until 1763). Elizaveta Petrovna sits on the throne of the Russian Empire (until 1761). Ukraine is divided along the Dnieper river between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire. The Hetman of Ukraine is Kyrylo Razumovsky. Nova Sich is the home of the Cossacks. There is a Crimean Khanate, which is subordinate to the Nogai Horde. In Iran, the Zand dynasty actually rules under the nominal rule of the Safavid Ismail III. The great states of Hindustan are the Great Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire. The power of the British East India Company is growing. China is ruled by the Qing Dynasty. The Edo period continues in Japan.


In Ukraine

Hryhoriy Lantukh relinquished the mace of the basket chief for a while