October 28, 2021

Industrial Revolution • Enlightenment • Glukhov period in the history of the Hetmanate • Russian Empire Geopolitical situation The Ottoman Empire was headed by Sultan Abdul-Hamid I (until 1789). Under Ottoman rule are the Middle East and Egypt, the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, part of the Caucasus, large areas in Europe: Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The vassals of the Ottomans are Wallachia and Moldova. The Holy Roman Empire covers, in addition to the German lands, Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, Bohemia, northern Italy, and the Austrian Netherlands. Its emperor - Joseph II (until 1790). Maria Theresa has the title of Queen of Hungary. King of Prussia is Frederick II (until 1786). Louis XVI reigned in France (until 1792). France has colonies in North America and India. In Spain, ruled by Charles III (until 1788). The Kingdom of Spain includes southern Italy, New Spain, New Granada and the Viceroyalty of Peru, the Inner Provinces and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata in the Americas, Philippines. Maria I (until 1816) and Pedro III (until 1786) reigned in Portugal. Portugal has possessions in Brazil, Africa, India, the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. George III (until 1820) sits on the throne of Great Britain. Britain has colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India. The war for independence continues in the North American colonies of Britain. Thirteen colonies formed the United States. The north of the Netherlands is occupied by the Republic of the United Provinces. It has colonies in North America, Indonesia, Formosa and Ceylon. King of Denmark and Norway - Christian VII (until 1808), on the Swedish throne sits Gustav III (until 1792). The Venetian Republic and the Papal States are independent on the Apennine Peninsula. King of the Commonwealth - Stanislaw August Poniatowski (until 1795). Catherine II ruled in the Russian Empire (until 1796). Ukraine is divided between three states. The Kingdom of Galicia and Vladimir belongs to Austria. The border between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire runs along the Dnieper. The left-bank part is divided into Little Russia, Novorossiysk and Sloboda-Ukrainian provinces. The Transdanubian Sich exists under the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Independent Crimean Khanate, which owns the Nogai Horde. Iran is ruled by a dynasty

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