1789

Article

August 8, 2022

Industrial Revolution • Enlightenment • Russian Empire • Great French Revolution

Geopolitical situation

In the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdul-Hamid I was succeeded by Selim III (until 1807). The Ottomans ruled the Middle East and Egypt, the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, part of Transcaucasia, significant territories in Europe: Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia. The vassals of the Ottomans are Wallachia and Moldova. In addition to the German lands, the Holy Roman Empire included Hungary with Croatia, Transylvania, Bohemia, Northern Italy, and the Austrian Netherlands. Its emperor is Joseph II (until 1790). Prussia was ruled by Friedrich Wilhelm II (until 1797). Louis XVI reigned in France (until 1792). France has colonies in North America and India. King of Spain - Charles IV (until 1808). The Kingdom of Spain includes southern Italy, New Spain, New Granada, the Viceroyalty of Peru, the Interior Provinces, and the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata in the Americas, the Philippines. Maria I reigns in Portugal (until 1816). Portugal has possessions in Brazil, Africa, India, the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. George III sits on the throne of Great Britain (until 1820). Britain has colonies in North America, the Caribbean and India. The United States of America occupies the territory of 13 former British colonies, the territory in the north of the North American continent belongs to Great Britain, the territory in the south and west belongs to Spain and France. The north of the Netherlands is occupied by the Republic of the United Provinces. It has colonies in America, Indonesia, Formosa and Ceylon. The king of Denmark and Norway is Christian VII (until 1808), Gustav III sits on the Swedish throne (until 1792). The Republic of Venice and the Papal States are independent on the Apennine Peninsula. King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Stanislav August Poniatovsky (until 1795). Catherine II ruled the Russian Empire (until 1796). Ukraine is divided between three states. The Kingdom of Galicia and Volodymyr belongs to Austria. The border between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Russian Empire runs along the Dnieper. The left-bank part is divided into Kyiv Governorate, Chernihiv Governorate, Novgorod-Siver Governorate, Novorossiysk Governorate and Kharkiv Governorate. Transdanubian Sich exists under the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Crimea is part