October 4 (October 16) - the beginning of the Crimean War
The first railway line was built in India.
The invention of the technology of industrial refining of oil and ozokerite into petroleum products (kerosene, gasoline, petroleum bitumen (asphalt), tar, paraffin) by Johann Zeg.
The invention of the syringe for injection.
George Kaylee designed the first glider.
See See also Category: Born 1853
January 7 - Arkas Mykola Mykolayovych, Ukrainian historian
January 14 - Shokhor-Trotsky Semyon Ilyich, Russian mathematician-teacher
January 28 - Jose Marti, Cuban revolutionary, writer, national hero of Cuba
March 30 - Vincent van Gogh, Dutch postmodern painter
July 18 - Hendrik Lorenz, Dutch physicist, Nobel laureate
July 27 - Volodymyr Galaktionovych Korolenko, writer
September 2 - Wilhelm Ostwald, German physicist and chemist
September 4 - Hermann von Wissmann, German traveler, explorer of Africa
September 21 - Heike Kamerling-Onnes, Dutch physicist and chemist, winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics
See see also Category: Died 1853