XVIII century

Article

August 13, 2022

The 18th century began in 1701 and ended in 1800, the formal end of the medieval era.

Events

Enlightenment The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 The emergence of the United States Coke replaced wood as fuel.

Wars

Great Northern War Forced deportation of Ukrainians from the Right Bank to Russian-controlled Left Bank Ukraine (1711-1712) Russo-Turkish wars War of the Spanish Succession The War of Polish Succession 1733-1735 The War of the Austrian Succession Seven years war Divisions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth The American Revolution The Great French Revolution

Policy

Geopolitics in Eastern Europe. The emergence of the Russian Empire. Disappearance of the Crimean Khanate. Loss of statehood by Poland.

Political figures

Louis XIV (King of France) (1663-1736) Charles XII (1682—1718) Peter I (1672-1725) Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa (1639—1709) Pylyp Stepanovych Orlyk (1672—1742) Marquis de Pombal (1699—1782) Maria Theresa (1717-1780) Marquise de Pompadour (1721—1764) Catherine II (1729—1796) Maximilian Robespierre (1758—1794) Napoleon Bonaparte (1769—1821) Paul I (1754-1801) Georges Jacques Danton (1759—1794) Jean-Paul Marat (1743—1793) Frederick II (King of Prussia) (1712—1786) Eugene of Savoy (1663—1736) Charles of Lorraine (1712—1780) Louis XV (1710-1774) Louis XVI (1754-1793)

Science

Scientists

Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (1632—1723) Carl Linnaeus (1707—1778) Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646—1716) Isaac Newton (1643-1727) Mykhailo Vasyliovych Lomonosov (1711—1765) Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743—1794)

Inventions, discoveries

Piano, tuning fork Steam engine Steamer Submarine Artificial teeth Rubber Extinction (biology) Lightning rod Appertization Law of conservation of mass of matter The first smallpox vaccine

Art currents

Late Baroque Rococo Chinoiserie Enlightenment Classicism Revolutionary classicism only in France Sentimentalism Empire Academicism

Famous theater decorators

Ferdinando Bibiena (1656—1743) Giuseppe Valeriani (1708(?)—1761) Pietro Gonzaga (1751—1831)

Composers

Antonio Vivaldi (1678—1741) Johann Sebastian Bach (1685—1750) Nikola Porpora (1686—1766) Christoph Willibald Gluck (1714—1787) Domenico Scarlatti (1685—1757) Joseph Myslivecek (1737—1781) Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky (1745—1777) Antonio Salieri (1750—1825) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Joseph Haydn (1732—1809) Ludwig van Beethoven (1770—1827) Niccolò Paganini (1782—1840) Known b�