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May 19, 2022

Austria (German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐˌʁaɪç] ( listen)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, listen ) is a landlocked country located in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers an area of ​​83,879 square kilometers (32,386 sq mi). Austria's topography has many mountains, located in the Alps; only 32% of the country lies below 500 m (1,640 ft), and the highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). Austria consists of nine federal states (Bundesländer), one of which is Vienna, the capital and largest city of Austria. The majority of the population speaks the Bavarian dialect of German as a native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language, with Germans being the native people of the country. Other official languages ​​are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian and Slovenian. Austria initially emerged as a duchy around 976 and developed into a principality and principality. In the 16th Century, Austria began to serve as the center of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the house of Habsburg - one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an ancient city, it was a major component and administrative center of the Holy Roman Empire. In the early 19th Century, Austria established the Austrian Empire, becoming a great power and leading force of the German Confederation, but pursuing its own route of independence from other German states after its defeat in the Austrian War- Prussia in 1866. In 1867, by compromise with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy was established. Austria entered World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of the Crown Prince, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. After the defeat and dissolution of the Monarchy, the Austro-German Republic was proclaimed with the intention of an alliance with the Weimar Republic, but the Allied powers did not support this new state and it remained unrecognized. receive. In 1919, the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor to Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became Chancellor of the German Empire, accomplished the annexation of Austria thanks to the Anschluss incident. After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and a long period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic state, known as the Second Republic. Austria is a parliamentary democracy with the Federal President directly elected as the head of state and the Prime Minister as the head of the federal government. The major metropolitan areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world on the Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top international cities for quality of life indicators. The Second Republic declared permanent neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria is a member of the United Nations.