soccer ball


January 18, 2022

A soccer ball is a ball used in soccer matches. The spherical shape of the ball, as well as its size, weight and material composition, are regulated by Article 2 of the Laws of Football maintained by the International Football Association Board (IFAB). Additional, more stringent standards are set by FIFA and its lower governing bodies for the balls used in the tournaments they govern. The first balls were usually made of an animal's bladder or stomach. These balls are easy to break when shot too hard. Improvements became possible in the 19th century with the introduction of rubber balls and the discoveries of vulcanization by Charles Goodyear. Today's modern 32-piece ball design was developed by Eigil Nielsen in 1962, and research into the technology continues today to develop soccer balls with improved performance. The 32-piece ball design was soon replaced by 24-piece balls as well as 42-piece balls, both of which improved performance over the former, implemented since 2007. The silhouette design of the black and white truncated regular pentagon pieces is the launch of the Adidas Telstar, which has become an icon of the sport. Various designs of the ball have been created, including differences in both appearance and physical characteristics.


In 1863, the first specifications for the ball were officially regulated by the Football Association. Before that, the ball was made from inflated leather, with an outer skin coating to help the ball maintain its shape. In 1872 the technical details were revised, and the rules remained essentially unchanged according to the regulations of the Council of the International Football Association. Distinctions in balls have been made since this rule went into effect, with balls manufactured with different materials being creatively used. Football has undergone a significant change over time. During the Middle Ages, the ball was usually made from an outer shell of skin filled with cork chips. Another method of making a balloon is to use an animal's bladder on the inside of the balloon so that it can be easily inflated. However, these two ways of creating a soccer ball make the ball easy to puncture and not durable enough for strong shots. It was not until the 19th century that the soccer ball developed into a ball with the shape it is today.


The materials of today's football are tested on the deformation of the soccer ball when it is kicked in or when the ball hits a surface. Two styles of football have been tested by the Sports Technology Research Group of the Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at Loughborough University; these two models are known as the basic FE model and the development FE model of football. The basic model considers the ball to be a spherical surface with isotropic material properties. The development model also uses physical properties

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