Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Article

January 20, 2022

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, referred to as the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia for short, is a Yugoslav state established after the Second World War and existed until its dissolution in 1992 in the context of the Yugoslav War. It is a former socialist state and is a federation consisting of six socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia. In addition, Serbia itself has two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina, along with Kosovo and Metohija. Initially, the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito sided with the eastern bloc at the start of the Cold War, however after the Tito-Stalin split in 1948 the federation pursued a policy of centralism. founded, and became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement. After Tito's death in 1980, nationalist ideology emerged in the late 1980s and led to ethnic divisions in the member republics, followed by interstate negotiations. The republic collapsed and by 1991 several European countries had recognized the independence of several republics. This led to the collapse of the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia and the beginning of the Yugoslav War.

History

World War II

On April 6, 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded by the Axis bloc, led by Nazi Germany; On April 17, 1941, the country was completely occupied. The Yugoslavs soon launched resistance under the banners of two organizations, the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland following the royalist ideology and the People's Liberation Army and Yugoslav Guerrilla Rangers. The supreme commander of the guerrillas was Josip Broz Tito, and under his command the movement soon began to create "liberated territories", attracting attention from the occupying forces. Unlike other nationalist militias in Yugoslavia, the guerrilla force was a pan-Yugoslav movement that promoted "fraternity and unity" among the peoples of Yugoslavia, and representing the republican, leftist, and socialist elements of Yugoslav politics. A coalition of prominent political parties, factions, and individuals, behind the movement is the People's Liberation Front (Jedinstveni narodnooslobodilački front, JNOF), led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ). The Front formed a representative political entity, the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ, Antifašističko Vijeće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije). AVNOJ held its initial conference in the liberated area of ​​Bihać on 26 November 1942, and declared itself the Yugoslav Debate Council (i.e. parliament). In 1943, the Yugoslav Guerrilla began to be attacked by people. Germany sees as a major threat. During the two main campaigns Fall Weiss (January to April 1943) and Fall Schwartz (May 15 to June 16, 1943), the Axis bloc attempted to quell Yugoslav resistance. In the battles, known respectively as the Battle of Neretva and the Battle of Sutjeska, 20,000 Guerrillas had to fight a force of 150,000 Axis troops. In both events, despite heavy casualties, Guerrilla commander Josip Broz Tito withdrew.

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