Chiem Thanh


May 19, 2022

Chiem Thanh (Chinese: 占城) is the name of the kingdom of Champa (Sanskrit: Campanagara) in Vietnamese history from 877 to 1693. Before 859 Vietnam called this kingdom Hoan Vuong. At the beginning of the 11th century, Champa consisted of four regions (known as small states in many sources): Amaravati (present-day Quang Nam, Da Nang, and Binh - Tri - Thien but later merged into Dai Viet. ), Vijaya (present-day Quang Ngai and Binh Dinh), Kauthara (present-day Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa) and Panduranga (present-day Ninh Thuan and Binh Thuan).

The Champa Dynasty

(For previous dynasties, please see the article on Lam Ap state and Hoan Vuong state) Since 875, Vietnamese historians have called Champa as Chiem Thanh Quoc. Particularly, the area of ​​Phan Rang (Panduranga) today is called Tan Dong Long.

Sixth Dynasty (875-982/1000)

Living forever in luxury, the Panduranga dynasty became weak. After more than 20 years of fighting with Angkor, the power in the country gradually fell into the hands of the Northern kings, who themselves resisted the invasions of the Angkor empire. In 859, a king with many feats, named Laksmindra Bhumisvara Gramasvamin, was crowned by courtiers, named Indravarman II. In the years 861, 862 and 865, the Champa army organized many raids on Annam government, bringing back a lot of food and wealth. In 889, the Angkor king Yasovarman twice entered Champa, but both were defeated and died in the deep forest (in 890), a part of the land on Upper Dong Nai and the northeastern territory of Angkor (Rattanakiri and Mondolkiri plateau) placed under the control of Chiem. Jaya Indravarman II The main capital is Dong Duong - Quang Nam today. The duration of this dynasty was from 875 - 889. Jaya Sinhavarman I. The period of this dynasty is from 898 - 903. Grandpa is a grandson and calls Indravarman II uncle. Jaya Caktivarman. Bhadravarman II (circa 908 to 910). Indravarman III. In 918, Indravarman III had a golden statue of goddess Bhagavati erected at Thap Ba. In 945, the Khmer king Rajendravarman II and his soldiers crossed the forest from Angkor into Kauthara, robbed the golden statue of goddess Bhagavati - the protector of the country and a symbol of Champa's authority - in the tower of Yan Po Nagara and brought it home. In 965, Jaya Indravarman I rebuilt the stone statue of goddess Bhagavati at Kauthara. At this time, Brahmanism became the state religion. Also during this period, Islam was spread through a nobleman from Java who came as refugee Rahdar Ahmed Abu Kamil (Naqid Amr Ali). Paramesvaravarman I (Three Americas Taxes or Good Loi Da Tables or Three Americas Indian Seeds). In 979, before or after the death of Dinh Tien Hoang, he welcomed Ngo Nhat Khanh (the son of Ngo Quyen, according to the genealogy of Ngo Quyen's grandson) in exile to Champa, supporting Ngo Nhat Khanh's soldiers to intervene. interfered with the succession to the throne in Dai Co Viet and was beaten to death by King Le Dai Hanh (982?). Liu Ke Tong (983), the usurper. In 983, a Vietnamese guard (village head) living in Champa territory emerged and took the throne, but was defeated by King Le Dai Hanh (983?). During the reign of Luu Ke Tong, there was a Chinese Cham (?) named Poulo Ngo (?) who led about 150 people to land on Hainan Island and the southern coast of Guangzhou as refugees. Indravarm