Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev
Marshal Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: Леони́д Ильи́ч Бре́жнев, December 19, 1906 - November 10, 1982) was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982. He twice served as Chairman of the Union. Chairman of the Supreme Soviet (head of state) from May 7, 1960 to July 15, 1964, then from June 16, 1977 until his death on November 10, 1982.
Brezhnev was born on December 19, 1906 in Kamjanske in Ukraine, to Ilya Yakovlevich Brezhnev and his wife Natalia Denisovna. Like many other young men in the years after the Russian Revolution of 1917, he received a vocational education, initially in land management where he began as a land surveyor and later in metallurgy. He graduated from the Technical School (те́хникум) of Kamjanske Metallurgy and became a metallurgical engineer in the iron and steel industry in eastern Ukraine. He joined the Komsomol Youth Union in 1923 and joined the Party in 1931. At various times he would describe himself as a Ukrainian, or later, as he went through Party posts, as Russian. . Later, during his rule there was a process of Russification in Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldavia: the percentage of children being taught their native languages in their countries declined, communication in the vernacular was suppressed. restrictions and jailed "nationalists".
In the period 1935-1936, Brezhnev performed his military service, and after undergoing courses at a tank school, he worked as a commissar at a tank factory. Later, in 1936, he became rector of the Dniprodzerzhynsk Technical School of Metallurgy, where he was a student, and in 1939 he became Secretary of the Dnipropetrovsk City Party Committee, responsible for important defense industries. importance of this city.
Come to power
Brezhnev belonged to the first generation of Soviet Communists with no memory of pre-revolutionary Russia, and was too young to participate in the struggles within the Party leadership after Lenin's death in 1924. When Brezhnev entered the Party, Stalin was the undisputed leader. Those who remained after Stalin's political purge of 1937-1939 could be promoted quickly, because the purge left many vacant positions at the top leadership classes in the Party and State.
In June 1941, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union and, like most mid-level Party cadres, Brezhnev immediately enrolled in the army and assimilated the rank of Political Commissar of the Reserve Regiment. Initially, he worked on the operation to evacuate industries in Dnipropetrovsk to the east of the Soviet Union before the city fell to the Germans on August 26, after which he officially became a political officer in matrix. In October, Brezhnev was appointed deputy political director of the Southern Front. On December 26, 1941, he was promoted to the rank of Political Commissar of the Brigade (Бригадный комиссар, equivalent to Colonel).
In 1942, after the Germans captured most of Ukraine, Brezhnev was sent to the Caucasus as Deputy Political Director of the Transcaucasian Front. Rank