May 19, 2022
The Soviet Union or Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or abbreviated as СССР (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик), is a former country located in the northern part of mainland Asia. -Europe, existed from 1922 to 1991. It was a single-party state, led by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with Moscow as the capital of the Soviet Union's largest and most populous republic, Soviet Russia. Other major urban centers include Leningrad (Russian SSR), Stalingrad (USSR Russia), Kiev (Ukrainian SSR), Minsk (Byelorussia SSR), Tashkent (Uzbekistan SSR), Alma-Ata (Kazakh SSR). ) and Novosibirsk (Russian SFSR). It was once the largest country in the world, covering an area of more than 22,402,200 square kilometers (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning 11 time zones. The five main biomes of the USSR were tundra, taiga, steppe, desert, and mountain. The country's diverse population is officially known as Soviet. The Soviet Union was founded by the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolshevik Party led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin overthrew the Russian Provisional Government, which replaced the autocracy of Tsar Nikolai II during the World War first. In 1922, after the civil war ended with the victory of the Bolshevik Party, the Soviet Union was established, uniting the republics including Russia, the Transcaucasian, Ukraine and Belarus. Lenin's death in 1924 led to a leadership dispute, and eventually Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Stalin formalized the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as communism. Marx–Leninism and replaced the market economy with a planned one, thereby ushering in a period of leaps and bounds industrialization and centralization. During this period, rapid economic growth produced dramatic improvements in living standards, health care and education, especially in urban areas; The Soviet Union has risen to become the second largest power in the world. Besides these advances, several setbacks occurred. Droughts, frequent natural disasters in the region, the policy of centralization of agriculture, all led to a great famine in 1932-1933, which killed millions of people. The boiling political skepticism, especially after the rise of fascism in Nazi Germany in 1933 and the threat of world war, produced a massive purge, with hundreds of thousands of people accused of spying. spies or anti-government agents were arrested and shot. On August 23, 1939, after unsuccessful attempts to form an anti-fascist alliance with the Western powers, the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression agreement. mutual strategy with Nazi Germany. After the start of the second world war, the Soviet Union attacked Poland and annexed the Baltic states. In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union, opening the Eastern Front of World War II. This was the largest front in the second world war, the Soviet casualties accounted for the highest number of the war, and they eventually gained the upper hand over the Axis forces.