Louis XIV of France

Article

May 19, 2022

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great (Louis the Great, Louis le Grand) or The Sun King (The Sun King, le Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon, who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. He is considered one of the great conquerors in history. His reign of 72 years and 110 days made him the longest reigning monarch of a sovereign state in history. France under Louis XIV was a symbol of the era of tyranny in Europe. Around the king were a series of important political, military and cultural figures, such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, Grand Condé, Turenne, Vauban, Boulle, Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Charpentier , Marais, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles Perrault, Claude Perrault and Le Nôtre. He ascended the throne at the age of four, and was regent by his mother, Anna of Austria. When he was 9 years old, after the rebellion, he was led into hiding from the capital Paris. He felt humiliated and determined to control himself, not to let anyone dominate as Cardinal Richelieu dominated his father and Cardinal Mazarin dominated his mother. Also from here on, he had a grudge against the capital Paris and never wanted to return to this city. In 1661, at the age of 23, Louis XIV officially ruled the kingdom after the death of Cardinal Mazarin. As an adherent of the concept of divine power, Louis XIV advocated the establishment of an autocratic court, eliminating the vestiges of decentralized feudalism that had profoundly affected the whole of France, and one of these was construction of the Palace of Versailles. In 1666, he chose the site of his own palace, 20 kilometers west of Paris, and ordered construction. He mobilized 36,000 workers, adding 6,000 horses to transport construction materials. Worker casualties were quite high. Every night, the cart goes to pick up the dead body due to an occupational accident. Dozens of people die every week from malaria. In 1682, the Palace of Versailles was completed, becoming the greatest palace in the world. The Palace of Versailles had no ramparts, the king built a palace to reign without cover, in the middle of an empty field, to prove that a monarch was powerful enough without needing moats and walls to protect. Versailles became a symbol of the wealth and power status of the most powerful empire in Europe. Across the continent, other monarchs—including those at war with France—show their friendship, envy, and challenge them by building palaces modeled on Versailles. Every monarch wants to build his own Versailles. Even the long and grand boulevards of Washington, D.C. of the United States, planned 100 years later, also designed by a French architect in the form of Versailles. After completing the Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV summoned the French nobles to move to the court to settle down, alleviating the conflicts of the aristocracy, many of which were involved in the Transfiguration. Fronde's rebellion while he was still in the regency. In this way, Louis XIV established a true monarchy