Broth, also known as broth, is a delicious cooking liquid that forms the basis of many dishes, especially soups, stews, and sauces. Making a broth consists of stewing animal meat or bones, seafood, vegetables, or wine in water, often for a long time. Mirepoix or other aromatics may be added for additional flavor.
Traditionally, broth is made by boiling different ingredients in water. A newer approach is to use a pressure cooker. Components may include some or all of the following:
Bones: Beef and chicken bones are most commonly used; Fish is also popular. The flavor of the juice comes from the bone marrow, cartilage, and other connective tissues. Connective tissue contains collagen, which is converted into liquid-thickening gelatin. Bone broth needs to be boiled for a long time; The pressure cooking method shortens the time it takes to extract flavor from the bones.
Meat: Cooked meat that is still attached to the bone is also used as an ingredient, especially with chicken. Cuts of meat with large amounts of connective tissue, such as shoulder cuts, are also used.
Mirepoix: Mirepoix is a combination of onions, carrots, celery and sometimes other vegetables that are added to enhance the flavor of the stock. Occasionally, less desirable parts of vegetables that may not be eaten (such as carrot skins and celery cores and leaves) are used, as the solids are removed from the stock.
Herbs and spices: The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local tradition. In classical cuisine, it is common to use a garni bouquet (or herb bag) consisting of parsley, bay leaf, a sprig of thyme, and possibly other herbs. This is usually placed in a package to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked.
The base broth is usually named for the main meat. A distinction is often made between fond blanc, or white broth, which is made using backbone and mirepoix, and brun brond, or brown broth, which takes its color by roasting bones and mirepoix before boil; The bones can also be coated in tomato paste before roasting. Chicken is most commonly used for fond blanc, while beef or veal is most commonly used in fond brunch.
Other regional categories include:
Dashi is a fish broth in Japanese cooking made by quickly cooking pieces of fish called katsuobushi with kelp in nearly boiling water.
Glace viande is a juice, usually made from veal, that is highly concentrated by reducing.
The deli meat broth, common in Cajun cooking, is made with ham.
Master Broth is a Chinese broth used primarily for poached meats, flavored with soy sauce, sugar, ginger, garlic, and other aromatics.
Shrimp broth is made from boiling shrimp shells. It is used in Southeast Asian cuisines such as laksa.
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