Negeri Sembilan (Malay pronunciation: [ˈnəgəri səmbiˈlan]) is one of the 13 states of Malaysia, located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, just south of Kuala Lumpur and bordered by Selangor to the north and Pahang to the south. east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.
The name of the state is said to be derived from the nine (sembilan) villages (nagari) in the Minangkabau language. The characteristics of the Minangkabau ethnic group are still present in the traditional architecture and the Malay dialect spoken in the state.
Unlike successive monarchs in other Malay states, the ruler of Negeri Sembilan was called Yang di-Pertuan Besar instead of Sultan. The election of the monarch is also unique, he is elected by a council of chiefs who lead the four largest districts, Sungai Ujong, Jelebu, Johol, and Rembau. Negeri Sembilan is also the only Malay state with a largely matrilineal society, a characteristic introduced by the Minangkabau people.
The capital of Negeri Sembilan is Seremban. The royal capital is Seri Menanti in Kuala Pilah district. Other important municipalities are Port Dickson and Nilai.
The Minangkabau from Sumatra settled in Negeri Sembilan in the 14th century under the auspices of the Malacca Kingdom, then under the auspices of its successor, the Kingdom of Johor. Negeri Sembilan is the only state in Malaysia that practices the matrilineal custom brought by the Minangkabau. As Johor weakened in the 18th century, Bugis attacks forced the Minangkabau to defend their homeland. The Minangkabau ruler of Sumatra, Sultan Abdul Jalil, was forced to send a relative, Raja Melewar, to the area. When Raja Melewar arrived, he discovered that Raja Khatib had established himself as the monarch. Raja Melewar declared war against Raja Khatib and became the first monarch of Negeri Sembilan. The Sultan of Johor confirmed Raja Melewar's status by conferring the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar Negeri Sembilan in 1773. After Raja Melewar's death, a series of disputes arose over the matter of succession, often leading to unrest. and civil war.
In 1873, the British intervened militarily in the civil war at Sungai Ujong to secure British economic interests, and put the country under the control of a British Ambassador. The same thing happened with Jelebu in 1886, and with the rest of the states in 1895. In 1897, when the United Malay States was established, Sungai Ujong and Jelebu were united in an alliance of states. The kingdom and formerly known as Negeri Sembilan, came under the control of a single Ambassador and became a member of the United Malay States.
The number of states in the Negeri Sembilan fluctuated over time, having ceded Naning to Malacca, Kelang to Selangor, and Segamat to Johor.
Negeri Sembilan was occupied by Japan during World War II, from 1942 to 1945, and joined the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and became a state of Malaysia in 1963.
Negeri Sembilan has seven districts.
Negeri Sembilan has a population of 1,021,064 according to the 2010 census. Ethnic composition: Malay 57.8%, Chinese 21.9%, Indian 14.3%, other ethnicities 0.35% .
Nigeri Sembilan Government Website Archived 2008-02-09 at