Han Dynasty

Article

January 20, 2022

The Han Dynasty is the second imperial dynasty in Chinese history, founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the Liu family. Following the short-lived Qin Dynasty (221 BC - 206 BC) and the period of the Han War - Chu had no monarchy, the Han Dynasty was interrupted for a short period when the regent Wang Mang usurped power and established it. Tan Dynasty (9 – 23). It existed through two periods – the Western Han (206 – 9) and the Eastern Han (23 – 220) – before the Three Kingdoms period opened. Spanning more than four centuries, the Han Dynasty is considered the golden age in Chinese history, strongly influencing the identity of Chinese civilization until much later. Today, the majority ethnic group in China calls themselves "Han people", in Chinese it is called "Han language" and written Chinese is called "Han characters". The emperor was a person of high status. in the social hierarchy of the Han Dynasty. He held the highest authority in the Han government apparatus, sharing power with the nobility and high-ranking officials, mostly from the scholarly family. With the reformed inheritance of a county-level administrative unit from the Qin dynasty and the establishment of several semi-autonomous kingdoms, the Han Empire was divided into several regions directly controlled by the central government. Over time, the semi-autonomous kingdoms gradually lost their independence completely, especially after the Rebellion of the Seven Kingdoms. From the reign of Emperor Wu (reigned. 141 BC – 87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and government, synthesizing this ideology with the cosmology of scholars such as Dong Trong Thu. Confucian patronage continued until the fall of the Qing Dynasty (1636-1912) in 1912. The economy of the Han Dynasty prospered, witnessing a significant development of the monetary economy that had been established since the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC – 249 BC). Coins minted by the central government, issued in 119 BC, remained the standard coins in China until the Tang Dynasty (619–907). The political system of the Han dynasty had many changes. To finance military campaigns and pacify the newly conquered frontiers, the Han government nationalized the private iron and salt industry in 117 BC. However, by the Eastern Han Dynasty, this state monopoly policy was abolished. Science and technology during the Han Dynasty had many remarkable innovations such as the papermaking process, the rudder of ships, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, topographic maps, hydraulic-powered turbulence for nature. literature and a seismometer that uses an inverted pendulum, which can determine the main direction of an earthquake from a distance. In 200 BC, the Xiongnu steppe nomadic alliance defeated the Han, forcing the Han to submit as a subordinate partner for several decades, but at the same time continuing to attack the Han frontier militarily. Emperor Wu of Han launched a series of military campaigns against the Xiongnu. The successful campaign eventually helped the Han force the Xiongnu to accept the status of tributary vassal. Thanks to the series of conquest campaigns, the Han Dynasty expanded the

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