Chemistry Yearbook

Article

May 19, 2022

The Chemistry Chronology lists the important works, discoveries, ideas, inventions and experiments that have drastically changed the human understanding of the modern science of chemistry, defined as the the scientific study of the composition of matter and its interactions. The history of modern chemistry is believed to begin with the Irish scientist Robert Boyle, although its origins can be traced back to the earliest times known to man. The early ideas that later entered modern chemistry came from two main sources. Natural philosophers (such as Aristotle and Democritos) used deductive logic to explain the workings of the world around them. Alchemists (such as Geber and Rhazes) were people who used experimental techniques to attempt to prolong life or to perform physical transformations, such as turning base metals into gold. In the 17th century, a synthesis of the ideas of these two methods, deductive and experimental, led to the development of a thought process known as the scientific method. With the emergence of the scientific method, modern chemistry was born. Known as the "central science", the study of chemistry strongly influences and influences many other areas of science and technology. Many of the events that are central to our understanding of chemistry today are also considered important discoveries in fields such as physics, biology, astronomy, geology, and science. materials study.

Before the 17th century

Before the acceptance of the scientific method and its application in the field of chemistry, there was some controversy as to whether many of the people listed below were "chemists" in the modern sense of the word. this or not. However, the ideas of some great thinkers, either because of their later predictive significance or because of their long and widespread acceptance, are listed here. 3000 BC The Egyptians formulated the Ogdownload, or "primordial forces" that made up all things. Those are the eight elements of chaos and existed before the sun. 1200 BC Tapputi-Belatikallim, a perfumer and chemist, is mentioned in a cuneiform tablet in Mesopotamia. 450 BC Empedocles asserts that all things are made up of four primordial elements: earth, water, fire and water, according to which two opposing states, love and hate, or sympathy and aversion, operate according to these elements. , combining and splitting them into extremely diverse forms. In 440 BC Leucippus and Democritus proposed the idea of ​​the atom, an indivisible particle, that made up all things. This idea was widely rejected by Aristotelian natural philosophers (see below). 360 BC Plato coined the term 'classical element' (stoicheia) and in his dialogue book Timaeus, which mentions the composition of inorganic and organic matter and