France

Article

May 19, 2022

France (French: La France; local pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française; [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]) (English: France), is a sovereign state. The main territory is located in Western Europe with a number of regions and overseas territories. The French territory in Europe stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhin River to the Atlantic Ocean. France also has French Guiana on the South American mainland and a number of islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The 18 regions of France (including the French homeland, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion and Mayotte and the regions of the original France) have a total area of ​​643,801 km², and the population as of 2022 is nearly 70 million people. If you include territories other than Antarctica, it is about 674,000 km². France is a unitary semi-presidential republic, the capital Paris is also the largest city, the main cultural and commercial center of the country. Other major urban centers are Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse and Bordeaux. During the Iron Age, France was inhabited by the Celts Gauls. Rome (Roman) annexed the area in 51 BC, a state that lasted until 486, when the Germain Franks conquered the area and established the Kingdom of France. France emerged as a great power in Europe in the late Middle Ages, winning the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) to strengthen the nation and centralize politics. During the Renaissance, French culture developed, and established a global colonial empire that became the world's second largest empire in the twentieth century. During the sixteenth century, France was dominated by religious civil wars between Roman Catholic and Protestant powers. France became the dominant cultural, political and military force in Europe under Louis XIV. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, the French Revolution overthrew the totalitarian monarchy, establishing one of the earliest republics in modern history, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was the foundation of the revolution and expression French ideology to the present day. During the nineteenth century, when Napoleon seized power and established the First French Empire, Napoleon's wars shaped the course of continental Europe. After the fall of the empire, France experienced turmoil with successive governments, culminating in the establishment of the Third French Republic in 1870. France was a major war party in World War I, and won a great victory. During World War II, France was part of the Allies but was occupied by the Axis forces in 1940 by Nazi Germany. After its liberation in 1944, the French Fourth Republic was established but was later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic under Charles de Gaulle was established in 1958 and has survived to this day. Algeria and nearly all of the other colonies became independent in the 1960s (the year of Africa), but often maintained close economic and military links with France. France has long enjoyed its status as a world center for the arts, sciences and philosophy. France has the third largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe, and