May 19, 2022

English (English()) is a West Germanic language, spoken since the Middle Ages in England, today the global lingua franca. The English word comes from the Angle, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England (the word "Angle" itself originates from the peninsula of Anglia (Angeln) on the Balt Sea). English is closely related to the Frisian languages, but the vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, as well as from Latin and Romance languages, notably French/Norman. developed over a period of more than 1,400 years. The oldest form of English – an Anglo-Frisian assemblage brought to Great Britain by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century AD – is known as Old English. The Middle English era began in the late 11th century when the Normans invaded England; This was the period when English was influenced by French/Norman. Modern English began in the late 15th century with the arrival of the press press in London and the King James Bible, with it the beginning of the Great Vowel Shift. Thanks to the global influence of the British Empire, modern English spread around the world between the seventeenth and mid-twentieth centuries. Thanks to various types of print and electronic communication, as well as the emergence of the United States as a superpower, English has become the leading language of international communication, the lingua franca in many regions and in many dimensions. specialized fields such as science, navigation and law. English is the third most widely spoken language in the world, after Chinese and Spanish. It is the most learned second language and the official language of nearly 60 sovereign countries. This language has a larger number of speakers as a second and foreign language than native speakers. English is the most widely spoken language in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States, Canada, Australia, the Republic of Ireland and New Zealand, and is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa and South Asia. . It is the co-official language of the United Nations, of the European Union and of many other international and regional organizations. It is the most common Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of its speakers. The English vocabulary is very large, and it is impossible to determine the exact number of words. Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a language with diverse morphological inflections. and free sentence structure, into an analytic language with only a few inflections, fixed SVO structure and complex syntax. Modern English relies on auxiliary verbs and word order to express the system of tenses, forms and modes, as well as the passive, interrogative and some negative cases. Despite notable regional and national variations in accent and dialect – in terms of phonetics and phonetics, as well as vocabulary, grammar and spelling – English speakers around the world can Communication is relatively easy.

Grammar basics

English is an intermediate head-inital language. Although the vocabulary contains most of the words from Latin, the grammar is still characteristic