Third Battle of Seoul


May 19, 2022

The Third Battle of Seoul, also known as the Chinese New Year's General Offensive, the 4 January Retreat (Korean: 1•4 후퇴) or the Third Western Campaign (Chinese: 第; pinyin: Aunt Sān Cì Zhàn Yì Xī Xiàn) was a battle of the Korean War that took place from December 31, 1950 to January 7, 1951 around the Korean capital Seoul. Korea (Korea). After the victory of the People's Volunteers (CCP) at the Battle of Ch'ongch'on River, Chinese President Mao Zedong decided to let the PRC advance south across the 38th parallel in order to completely repel the Chinese forces. United Nations forces out of the Korean peninsula. On December 31, 1950, the 13th People's Volunteer Army attacked four Korean 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th divisions along the 38th parallel at defensive positions in the Imjin River, Hantan River, Gapyeong and Chuncheon. The UN defenses were breached, leading to the US 8th Army commander Matthew B. Ridgway's decision to evacuate UN forces from Seoul on 3 January 1951. Afternoon 4 In January, the CCP entered Seoul and saw only one city that had been abandoned. Despite their defeat in the Third Battle of Seoul, the United Nations forces abandoned their plans to withdraw from the Korean peninsula. The ARVN after consecutive victories also became exhausted and gradually lost the initiative on the battlefield towards the United Nations coalition.

Battle Circumstances

China's entry into the Korean War in the late 1950s pushed the conflict into a new phase. When United Nations forces crossed the 38th parallel into the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) despite strong opposition from the People's Republic of China and marched as far as the Chinese border - During the reign of the Yalu River, the People's Liberation Army of China under the name of the People's Volunteer Army - commanded by General Peng Dehuai - was ordered by Chairman Mao Zedong to enter the North of the Korean peninsula. and began attacking UN forces on 25 October. In December 1950, the ROK and Korean People's Army recaptured the North of the Korean peninsula after major victories in the Ch'ongch River Valley' On and Truong Tan Lake. On the western front of the Korean peninsula, after the US 8th Army's defeat at the Ch'ongch'on River, this unit retreated to the Imjin River and set up established defensive positions around the Korean capital Seoul. Seoul is divided into two halves north and south by the Han River, located 56 km south of the 38th parallel. Although the 8th Army was ordered to hold Seoul for as long as possible, United Nations Forces Commander-in-Chief Douglas MacArthur planned to withdraw his troops to the Pusan ​​Perimeter if UN forces were overrun. General Walton Walker, commander of the 8th Army, was killed in a traffic accident on December 23, and Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway became the new commander of the 8th Army three days later. The United Nations also proposed to China a cease-fire along the 38th parallel on 11 December 1950 to avoid any hostile escalation.