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August 20, 2022

Uranium or uranium is a white metallic chemical element of the actinium group, with atomic number 92 in the periodic table, denoted by U. For a long time, uranium was the last element of the periodic table. . Radioactive isotopes of uranium have neutron numbers from 144 to 146, but the most common are the isotopes uranium-238, uranium-235, and uranium-234. All isotopes of uranium are unstable and weakly radioactive. Uranium has the second heaviest atomic mass of all natural elements, behind plutonium-244. The density of uranium is about 70% greater than that of lead, but not as dense as gold or tungsten. Uranium occurs naturally in concentrations as low as a few ppm in soil, rock, and water, and is produced commercially from uranium-containing minerals such as uraniumnitite. In nature, uranium is found in the form of uranium 238 (99.284%), uranium 235 (0.711%), and very small amounts of 234 uranium (0.0058%). Uranium decays very slowly, emitting alpha particles. The half-life of uranium 238 is about 4.47 billion years and that of uranium 235 is 704 million years, so it is used to determine the age of the Earth. Currently, the applications of uranium are based solely on its nuclear properties. Uranium-235 is the only isotope capable of spontaneous fission. Uranium 238 is fissile with fast neutrons, and is an enrichment material, which means it can be converted into plutonium-239, a fissionable product in a nuclear reactor. Another fissile isotope, uranium-233, can be made from natural thorium and is also an important material in nuclear technology. While uranium-238 has a low spontaneous fission potential or even includes fast neutron fission, uranium 235 and the isotope uranium-233 have much higher effective fission cross-sections than slow neutrons. . When concentrations are sufficient, these isotopes maintain a stable chain of nuclear reactions. This process generates heat in nuclear reactors and produces fissile material used in nuclear weapons. Depleted uranium (U-238) is used in piercing warheads and armored vehicle casings. In the civil sector, uranium is mainly used as fuel for nuclear power plants. In addition, uranium is also used as a red-orange to lemon-yellow pigment for uranium glass. It is also used as a pigment and colorant in films. Martin Heinrich Klaproth is credited with discovering uranium in the mineral pitchblende in 1789. He named the new element after the planet Uranus (Uranus). Meanwhile, Eugène-Melchior Péligot was the first to separate this metal, and its radioactive properties were discovered by Antoine Becquerel in 1896. Research by Enrico Fermi and other authors started in 1934. application of uranium in the nuclear energy industry and in the atomic bomb called Little Boy, which was the first nuclear weapon used in war. Since the Cold War arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union has produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons using enriched uranium and uranium-derived plutonium. The safety of these weapons and their fissile materials after