Kingdom of Italy

Article

January 18, 2022

The Kingdom of Italy (Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 after King Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia united the countries of the Italian peninsula and became King of Italy. This state existed until 1946 after the Italians decided to renounce the monarchy and chose a republican constitution through a referendum.

History

In 1866 Italy allied with Prussia and declared war on Austria, although the campaign was unsuccessful, Italy still captured the Veneto region after Bismarck's victory. Italian troops entered Rome in 1870, ending more than a thousand years of papacy. Italy accepted Bismarck's proposal to join a tripartite alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary in 1882, after strong disagreements with France over colonial expansion. However, even when the alliance with Berlin became friendly, relations with Vienna remained purely formal, as Italy always kept an eye on Trentino and Trieste, two lands that belonged to the Austro-Hungarian empire but inhabited The people here are mostly Italians. Thus, in 1915, Italy accepted Britain's invitation to join the Allies during World War I, as the territorial promises from the Western allies were far more generous than the neutral offers from the Allies. Austria-Hungary. Victory in the war gave Italy the status of a great power along with a permanent seat on the Council of the League of Nations. Fascist Italy is the name some historians refer to the Kingdom of Italy during the period when the National Fascist Party of dictator Benito Mussolini was in power from 1922 to 1943. Mussolini established a dictatorship and repression. opposition parties and dissidents, but at the same time promoting economic modernization, the re-establishment of traditional social values ​​and relations with the Roman Catholic Church. According to Payne (1996), "the Italian Fascist regime went through relatively different phases". The first phase (1923-1925) was nominally a continuation of the parliamentary system, although operated under a "legally organized and run dictatorship". The second phase (1925-1929) was the period of "building a true fascist dictatorship". The third period (1929-1934) was spent with little notable activity. The fourth period (1935-1940) was characterized by an aggressive foreign policy with invasions of Ethiopia as well as British Somaliland, in confrontation with economic sanctions by the League of Nations. The fifth period (1940-1943) was the period when Italy entered World War II, with military defeats and domestic disasters. The final period (1943-1945) was when the Salo government (under Nazi rule) took control of northern Italy. Under fascism, the Kingdom of Italy allied with Nazi Germany during World War II until 1943. During the remaining two years of World War II, the Kingdom of Italy turned to the Allies after Mussolini was overthrown and the party Fascist Italy was dissolved. In northern Italy the remnants of the fascist state continued to fight against the Allies under a Nazi puppet state, under the name "Italian Social Republic", still maintained by Mu.

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