The Internet (English: Internet) refers to the huge network system that emerged between the computer network and the computer network at the end of the 20th century. These networks are connected by some standard network protocols. It is composed of millions of private, academic, corporate, and government networks ranging from local to global, and is connected through a wide range of technologies such as electronic, wireless, and fiber optic network technologies. The Internet carries a wide range of information resources and services, such as interconnected hypertext files, as well as World Wide Web (WWW) applications, e-mail, calls, and file sharing services.
The origin of the Internet can be traced back to a study commissioned by the US Federal Government in the 1960s to establish fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. ARPANET, the predecessor of the Internet, was originally used as the backbone of regional academic and military network connections in the 1980s. In the 1980s, NSFNET became a new backbone and received funding, and other commercial expansion received private funding, which led to the rapid development of network technology worldwide, and the merger of many different networks to form a larger network. By the early 1990s, the connection between business networks and enterprises marked the transition to the modern Internet. Although the Internet was only widely used by academia in the 1980s, commercialized services and technologies have quickly integrated it into the lives of everyone in modern times.
The Internet is not the same as the World Wide Web. The Internet refers to a network composed of devices that can communicate with each other. It refers to various networks established using TCP/IP communication protocols. It is the largest Internet in the world, also known as the "internet". The World Wide Web is a system composed of many hypertexts linked to each other, accessed via the Internet. Under this definition, the World Wide Web is a service of the Internet. However, most people do not distinguish between the two and often mix them.
In the 1950s, communication researchers recognized the need to allow regular communication between different computer users and communication networks. This prompted research on decentralized networks, queuing theory, and packet switching. In 1960, the ARPANET established by the US Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) out of Cold War considerations triggered technological progress and made it the center of Internet development. The development of ARPANET began with two network nodes, the Network Measurement Center of the University of California, Los Angeles, led by Leonard Kleinrock, and the Stanford International Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, and Douglas Engelbart. The connection between two nodes of the NLS system. The third node is the University of California, Santa Barbara, and the fourth node is the University of Utah. By the end of 1971, 15 nodes had been connected to ARPANET. In June 1973, the Norwegian Seismic Array Institute (NORSAR) connected to ARPANET and became the first network node outside of the United States.
In 1974, Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf proposed TCP/IP, which defines the method of transmitting messages between computer networks (they won the Turing Award in 2004). In 1986, the National Science Foundation established the NSFNET, a backbone network based on TCP/IP technology for interconnection between the US Supercomputer Center and academic institutions. The speed was initially 56kbit/s, then T1 (1.5Mbit/s), and finally developed. To T3 (45Mbit/s). NSFNET expanded to academic and research organizations in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan from 1988 to 1989. Commercial Internet Service Providers (ISP) were established in the United States and Australia in 1989. ARPANET was retired in 1990.
In mid-1989, MCI Mail and CompuServe established a connection to the Internet and provided e-mail services to 500,000 people. In March 1990, the first high-speed T1 (1.5Mbit/s) connection between NSFNET and Europe was set up between Cornell University and CERN. Six months later, Tim Berners-Lee wrote the first web browser. By Christmas 1990, Tim Berners-Lee had established all the tools needed to run the World Wide Web: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the first web browser, the first web page The server and the first website. By 1995, when NSFNET was retired, the Internet had been fully commercialized in the United States, thus lifting the final commercial traffic restrictions.
The success of the Internet can be seen from the distinction between the uppercase and lowercase of the term "Internet". Initially, the term Internet represented those who used the IP protocol framework.