electronic calculator

Article

July 5, 2022

An electronic computer (also known as a computer) is a device that uses digital electronic technology to instruct and automatically perform any sequence of arithmetic or logical operations according to a series of instructions. General-purpose computers are capable of performing an extremely wide range of tasks due to their ability to follow a general set of operations called "programs." Computers are used as control systems for various industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple specific-purpose devices (such as microwave ovens and remote controls), industrial devices (such as industrial robots and computer-aided design), and general-purpose devices (such as personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones). Although there are many kinds of computers, according to Turing machine theory, a computer with basic functions should be able to do anything that any other computer can do. So theoretically everything from a smartphone to a supercomputer should be able to do the same job (regardless of time and storage). Due to rapid technological advancement, the next generation of computers will always be able to significantly outperform their predecessors, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as "Moore's Law". Through the Internet, computers are connected to each other, which greatly improves the speed of information exchange, which in turn promotes the development of science and technology. In the 21st century, the application of computers has been involved in all aspects and all walks of life. Simple manual devices - like the abacus - have helped people perform calculations since ancient times. In the early days of the Industrial Revolution, machines of all kinds were created to automate tedious and tedious tasks, such as weaving patterns on a loom. More complex machines appeared in the early 20th century, using analog circuits to perform complex and specific calculations. The first digital electronic computers appeared during World War II. Since then, the speed, power consumption and versatility of computers have continued to increase. In modern times, the application of mechanical computers has been completely replaced by electronic computers. Computers vary in composition. There are still plenty of bulky supercomputers serving ad hoc scientific computing or transaction processing needs for large organizations. The relatively small ones designed for personal applications are called Personal Computers (PCs), which are referred to as "microcomputers" in China. This is also commonly referred to in everyday use of the word "computer" today, but the most common form of computer application today is embedded, which is usually relatively simple, small, and used to control other equipment—whether it's an aircraft. , industrial robots or digital cameras. Technical research related to computers is called computer science, and "computer technology" refers to the sum of many technical and empirical results derived from applying the results of computer science to engineering practice. "Computer technology" and "computer science" are two related but different concepts. The difference is that the former is more practical and the latter is more theoretical. As for data-centric research, it is called information technology. Traditionally, modern computers contain at least one processing unit (usually a central processing unit (CPU)) and some form of memory. The processing elements perform arithmetic and logical operations, and the sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to the stored information. Peripherals include input devices (keyboard, mouse, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screen, printer, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (eg touch screen). Peripherals allow information to be retrieved from external sources and allow the results of operations to be saved and retrieved.

History

Originally, the original English word "computer" refers to a person who is engaged in data computing. And they often need the help of some mechanical computing equipment or analog computer. Ancestors of these early computing devices included the abacus, and the Antikythera mechanism used by the ancient Greeks to calculate planetary movements dating back to 87 BC. With the prosperity of mathematics and engineering in Europe at the end of the Middle Ages, in 1623, the German polymath Wilhelm Schickard took the lead in developing the first computing device in Europe, which was a computer that could add and subtract numbers within six digits and output the answer through a bell. "Calculating Clock". Use turning gears to operate. In 1642, the French mathematician Blaise Pascal improved it on the basis of the "slide rule" made by the English mathematician William Oughtred, enabling eight-digit counting.