The term web server (English: Web server) has two meanings:
A computer responsible for providing web pages is mainly constructed of various programming languages and transmitted to the client (usually a web browser) through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (English: HTTP).
A server program that serves web pages. Each web server (the first meaning) will run at least one web server program (the second meaning). As the first meaning, the mainland area is called a web server. In addition, it is also commonly referred to as a Web server.
Now the common hypertext transfer protocol servers on the market are:
Apache HTTP Server by Apache Software Foundation
Internet Information Server (IIS) from Microsoft Corporation
Google Web Server of Google LLC (a subsidiary of Alphabet Inc.)
NGINX from NGINX, Inc. (acquired by F5 Networks, Inc.)
Taobao (part of Alibaba Group) modified from NGINX's Tengine
FrontPage by Microsoft Corporation
Although each web server program has many differences, it has some common characteristics: every web server program needs to accept HTTP requests from the Internet, and then provide HTTP responses to the requester. An HTTP response generally contains an HTML document, and sometimes it can also contain plain text files, images, or other types of documents.
Generally speaking, these documents are stored in the local file system of the web server, and the URL and local file name have a hierarchical structure. The server will simply compare the URL to the local file system. When the web server software is properly installed and set up, the server administrator will specify a local path named root directory from the place where the server software places the files.
For example, if the server software is set on the "example.funnycorp.com" server, and the root directory of the server software is set to "/home/public/web/", when a browser enters the URL "http:// example.funnycorp.com/lips/raspberry.html", the server software on "example.funnycorp.com" will read the file "/home/public/web/lips/raspberry.html".
The following is the latest statistics on the market share of web servers on the Internet provided by W3Techs:
Less than 1% of websites use other web servers.
The following are statistics on the market share of web servers provided by Netcraft:
Apache, IIS and Nginx are the most commonly used web servers on the Internet.
The latest web server statistics can be found at this URL: Netcraft web server survey (page archive backup, stored in the Internet Archive) (English)
Web server comparison